June 01, 2007

40 trillion for infrastructure over the next 45 years

The world will be spending about 9 trillion on energy infrastructure over the next 45 years. According to Booz Allen Hamilton consulting
40 trillion on overall infrastructure. The biggest chunk is for water infrastructure. About 9.4 trillion road, rail and airports as well.

We should have better long term planning and a wholistic approach to energy and transportation. Plus more research on getting to an overall incrementally better situation.

Solar cells with 40.7% efficiency made, 58% efficient possible

Scientists from Spectrolab, Inc., a subsidiary of Boeing, have recently published their research on the fabrication of solar cells that surpass the 40% efficiency milestone—the highest efficiency achieved for any photovoltaic device.

A pdf with levelized cost of electricity analysis for natural gas, coal and nuclear from 2006
Natural gas is 3.8 to 5.9 cents(US)/kwh
Coal is 3.5 to 4.4 cents(US)/kwh
Nuclear is 2.5 to 4.1 cents (US)/kwh

The goal of the Solar America Initiative (SIA) is get solar energy competitive with other energy sources. How do the exact costs for Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) actually compare to other energy sources ? First, I will review the newest solar cell breakthrough in a bit more detail. Second, I show some references that compare costs of energy sources. Costs for all energy sources have a fairly large degree of variability based upon factors such as project financing (interest rates), local variables, project variables such as differences in labor and material costs. This variance is not dealt with in most analysis of costs. After the initial first pass comparison of costs, I look at some of the variables related to nuclear power costs. I have another source for hydroelectric cost (only China since that is where most new hydroelectric is being built) and then more CSP cost details.


In the design, multijunction cells divide the broad solar spectrum into three smaller sections by using three subcell band gaps. Each of the subcells can capture a different wavelength range of light, enabling each subcell to efficiently convert that light into electricity. With their conversion efficiency measured at 40.7%, the metamorphic multijunction concentrator cells surpass the theoretical limit of 37% of single-junction cells at 1000 suns, due to their multijunction structure.

The Spectrolab scientists also predict that with theoretical efficiencies of 58% in cells with more than three junctions using improved materials and designs, concentrator solar cells could achieve efficiencies of more than 45% or even 50% in the future. [This will enable costs to reach 4-5 cents per kwh in the better locations for solar power (see the map of sunlight levels at the bottom).]

The research that led to the discovery of the high efficiency concentrator solar cell was funded partly by the U.S. Department of Energy’s National Renewable Energy Laboratory, and will play a significant role in the government’s Solar America Initiative, which aims to make solar energy cost-competitive with conventional electricity generation by 2015.

Citation: King, R. R., Law, D. C., Edmondson, K. M., Fetzer, C. M., Kinsey, G. S., Yoon, H., Sherif, R. A., and Karam, N. H. “40% efficient metamorphic GaInP/GaInAs/Ge multijunction solar cells.” Applied Physics Letters 90, 183516 (2007).

The Levelized Cost of Electricity calculated by Sandia Labs (1997 dollars)

Another look at Levelized cost of Electricity (2005 dollars)

For China which is adding 160 GW of hydroelectric power over the next 12 years, the cost of hydroelectric is 0.25 yuan per kwh This converts to USD$0.019 per kWh or 1.9 cents (based on 7.66 yuan to 1 USD.

Varying cost estimates for nuclear, from the Economics of Nuclear Power by Steve Thomas

Another source of nuclear energy costs compared to other energy sources

The DOE has not set specific SAI program targets for domestic installed PV capacity or manufacturing capacity, but the program estimates that total installed PV capacity may reach 10-15 GW in domestic markets by 2015, if the SAI catalyzes cost reduction to parity with the grid by 2015.

Here is PDF with the funding opportunities from the SAI program

On page 13 of the 14 page pdf, they describe the performance parameters that they are using to measure progress.

Here is Sandia National Labs survey of Concentrated solar power

History and Projection of CSP costs. Concentrating solar power technologies currently offer the lowest-cost solar electricity for large-scale power generation (10 megawatt-electric and above). Current technologies cost $2–$3 per watt. This results in a cost of solar power of 9¢–12¢ per kilowatt-hour. New innovative hybrid systems that combine large concentrating solar power plants with conventional natural gas combined cycle or coal plants can reduce costs to $1.5 per watt and drive the cost of solar power to below 8¢ per kilowatt hour.

Advancements in the technology and the use of low-cost thermal storage will allow future concentrating solar power plants to operate for more hours during the day and shift solar power generation to evening hours. Future advances are expected to allow solar power to be generated for 4¢–5¢ per kilowatt-hour in the next few decades. This is towards the high end of mainstream power sources but would be competitive in many areas as costs fluctuate depending upon location. Also, the costs of fossil fuel power sources seems likely to increase.

Different CSP types compared from the Sandia Solar thermal technologies overview document

Solar resources in the USA.

May 31, 2007

Carbon nanotube pricing May 2007

Currently carbon nanotubes are sold on the world market for $100,000 to $800,000 per kilogram. However, Cheap tubes has reduced prices significantly in May 2007. They have 90% by weight SWNT CNT for $42,000 - 50,000 per kg. They have MWNT for as little as $350/kg. One ton orders have a 90 day lead time.

NASA Ames Research Center has inked a deal to use carbon nanotubes produced by the R & D Center under the Ho Chi Minh City Hi-Tech Park for aerospace application. The center’s products have won NASA’s confidence thanks to high quality and lower cost than Chinese and Japanese products. The materials used to make AFM tips are worth only US$10 but the price of a finished AFM tip is currently quoted at $600.

Washington Post reports China may build 300 nuclear plants by 2050

China intends to spend $50 billion to build 32 nuclear plants by 2020. Some analysts say the country will build 300 more by the middle of the century A Massachusetts Institute of Technology report said China may have to add as many as 200 nuclear power plants by 2050 to meet its needs. Academics from China's leading technical university, Tsinghua University, said the country might need more, equivalent to the output of 300 plants.

Two superconductor advances

Tiny, isolated patches of superconductivity exist within these superconducting substances at higher temperatures than previously were known, according to a paper by Princeton scientists, who have developed new techniques to image superconducting behavior at the nanoscale.

Caption: Using a customized microscope, Princeton scientists have mapped the strength of current-carrying electron pairs as they form in a ceramic superconductor. From the top left, the images show the same 30-nanometer square region of the ceramic at successively cooler temperatures. Red areas indicate the presence of superconducting pairs. Even at 10 degrees Celsius above Tc, the temperature at which the entire sample exhibits superconductivity, the electron pairs still exist in localized regions (top left image). Credit: Princeton University/Yazdani labs

The regions are only a few nanometers wide, but they appear in some materials at up to 50 degrees above the critical temperature. Ali Yazdani, senior author of the research paper, said that understanding why these minuscule patches of superconductivity exist at higher temperatures -- and how to create a material that exhibits the property everywhere -- may be the key to enhancing superconductivity.

Another superconductor discovery
A team of University of British Columbia researchers has contributed to the greatest advancement in superconductor research in a decade by "growing" the purest samples of superconductors to date.

"Up to now, it was unclear whether these materials were metals or insulators," said UBC Physics Prof. Douglas Bonn, adding that the materials are extremely sensitive to contamination - the slightest trace of dirt or impurity can alter their properties completely.

"We were able to supply our collaborators with the purest sample ever developed, leading to the discovery of quantum oscillations," said Bonn. "This provides unequivocal proof that these materials are metals."

"The results are crystal clear," said Louis Taillefer. "High-temperature superconductors were discovered in 1987, and only now do we finally have concrete knowledge about their deep nature. This discovery gives both theorists and experimentalists something real to work with.

Single spinning nuclei in diamond offer a stable quantum computing building block

At room temperature, carbon-13 nuclei in diamond create stable, controllable quantum register.
Surmounting several distinct hurdles to quantum computing, physicists at Harvard University have found that individual carbon-13 atoms in a diamond lattice can be manipulated with extraordinary precision to create stable quantum mechanical memory and a small quantum processor, also known as a quantum register, operating at room temperature. The finding brings the futuristic technology of quantum information systems into the realm of solid-state materials under ordinary conditions.

They found that nuclear spins associated with single atoms of carbon-13 -- which make up some 1.1 percent of natural diamond -- can be manipulated via a nearby single electron whose own spin can be controlled with optical and microwave radiation. The excitation of an electron by focusing laser light on a nitrogen vacancy center, a stable defect in a diamond lattice where nitrogen replaces an atom of carbon and develops an electronic spin in its ground state, causes the single electron's spin to act as a very sensitive magnetic probe with extraordinary spatial resolution.

Using the nitrogen center as an intermediary, a single carbon-13 atom's nuclear spin is cooled to near absolute zero, creating in the process a single, isolated quantum bit with a coherence time that approaches seconds. The controlled interaction between the electron and nuclear spins allows the latter to be used as very robust quantum memory.

The Harvard physicists also observed and manipulated coupling between individual nuclear spins, thus demonstrating a way to increase the number of qubits working in the quantum register. Because the electron spin and nuclear spin are controlled independently, the experiments lay the groundwork for development of larger, scalable systems in which such quantum registers are connected via optical photons.

"Beyond specific applications in quantum information science," the authors write, "our measurements show that the electron spin can be used as a sensitive local magnetic probe that allows for a remarkable degree of control over individual nuclear spins."

May 30, 2007

Alberta researchers create new nanotechnology field - spinplasmonics

Dr. Abdulhakem Elezzabi and his colleagues have applied plasmonics principles to spintronics technology and created a novel way to control the quantum state of an electron's spin.

The new technology, which the researchers call spinplasmonics, may be used to create incredibly efficient electron spin-based photonic devices, which in turn may be used to build, for example, computers with extraordinary capacities.

"We've only just begun to scratch the surface of this field, but we believe we have the physics sorted out and one day this technology will be used to develop very fast, very small electronics that have a very low power consumption," said Elezzabi, the Canada Research Chair in Ultrafast Photonics and Nano-Optics and an electrical and computer engineering professor at the U of A.

Elezzabi's work addresses a number of challenges that, to this point, have hindered further advancement in computer electronics, such as in the creation of smaller devices. One such challenge is that as traditional, silicon-based semiconductor devices approach the nanoscale, the laws of quantum physics take control over their performance (specifically the flow of charges—i.e. electrons) and render them inoperable.

"With the development of this technology I envision a move from semiconductors [silicon chips] to metal based electronics with light-driven circuits," Elezzabi said.

Researchers in the field of spintronics have tried to address this problem by building metal-based devices that harness the magnetic quantum properties of the spin of electrons. Although the spintronics field is barely a dozen years-old, some devices that incorporate spintronics technology are already on the market.
The field of plasmonics, which is even younger than spintronics, involves the transfer of light electromagnetic energy into a tiny volume, thus creating intense electric fields—a phenomenon that has many scientists rethinking the laws of electromagnetics on a nanoscale. The plasmonics field has many wide-ranging applications, from guiding light through metal wires, to bio-sensing, to making objects invisible to the eye.

Applications for aligned nanowires

To demonstrate the usefulness of the technique [aligned nanowires using bubbles], the researchers transferred the films to silicon wafers, then used conventional techniques to deposit electronic contacts on the films. The nanowires bridged the contacts, serving as semiconducting channels for working transistors.

Lieber says that early applications could include accurate home tests for illnesses such as cancer, influenza, and sexually transmitted diseases. In such a device, a protein biomarker for prostate cancer, for example, would connect to the nanowires, changing the wires' conductivity and registering the protein's presence. Nanowires provide three-orders-of-magnitude-greater sensitivity than current tests, Lieber says. And because the nanowires directly detect the proteins by generating an electronic signal, such tests would provide results right away, making it unnecessary for researchers to wait for results to come back from the lab. What's more, tests for multiple biomarkers can easily be combined on a chip. An array of hundreds of nanowires, each chemically modified to react with a specific protein, could be used to create a highly accurate cancer test.

The nanowires could also be used in flexible displays to turn pixels on and off. Conventional high-speed transistors require fabrication temperatures that would melt the plastic substrates used in flexible displays. But nanowires can provide the same performance without the need for high temperatures.

The researchers are now studying the process to find ways of packing the nanowires closer together, which could allow for applications beyond those for sensors and displays, such as for memory. Before the process can be used for manufacturing, though, it will need to be automated, possibly in ways similar to the blown-bubble techniques now used for high-volume production of plastic bags. Lieber says that the method could be used in nanodevice manufacturing within one to two years.

The new technique involves blowing bubbles made of an epoxy polymer mixed with either nanowires or carbon nanotubes. The researchers pour the mixture onto a circular surface equipped with a small hole; the polymer-nanowire mixture forms a membrane over the surface. The researchers then force nitrogen gas through the hole, expanding the membrane until it forms a bubble about 25 centimeters wide and 50 centimeters tall. A metal ring stabilizes the bubble as it grows, with the polymer material stretching to become a 200-to-500-nanometer-thick film containing evenly spaced nanowires or carbon nanotubes lined up and facing in approximately the same direction. The researchers speculate that sheer forces caused by the growth of the bubble make the nanowires line up.

The resulting film can be transferred to a number of surfaces, including silicon and flexible plastic. To do this, the researchers position silicon wafers or other materials so that when the bubble inflates, the surface of the bubble presses against them.

Nanowerk also has information on the process

In the present process, relatively low concentrations of CNTs and nanowires, less than 1%, are dispersed in the polymer suspension. As a result, the distance between individual nanostructures is relatively large (greater than 2 µm). "You need at least 4-5% by weight to get a good mechanical structure, but this is quite achievable, for example using surfactants or alternative polymers. There should now be real advances made quickly by learning from other areas" says Lieber.

Generally, this technique would allow fabrication of large-area thin film products with all types of nanoscale components. The bubble films could be further processed to make arrays of nanoelectronic or optical devices, sensors, and field emitters for flat panel displays. Bubble films coated on plastic substrates could be fabricated into flexible micro/nano systems. Introducing nanomaterials could also produce reinforced plastic films with better mechanical properties. The regular alignment of CNTs within the film would give it high tensile strength, potentially higher than Kevlar, and would make this an intriguing material for many materials applications, from airplane wings to protective clothing and armor.

Cao says that the team is now exploring several areas, including fabrication of nanosystems with distinct electrical or optical properties, and use of different polymers to facilitate subsequent device fabrication. "For example, we have developed photopolymer (PMMA) based bubbles that can be directly integrated into modern microfabrication technique to pattern electrodes."

He also cautions that there are challenges facing their research in the near future: "A better understanding of the mechanism of nanostructure alignment during bubble blowing process is necessary for further optimizing the process, and materials and instrumentation need to be developed for large scale production."

Wealth funds of nations

China has established a large national fund for investment but other nations have large funds as well. The largest is the ADIA fund of the UAE which has US$875 billion in assets Singapore, Saudi Arabia Norway have $300-330 billion funds.

Recently, Japan, Russia and India have reportedly been considering setting up funds along similar lines. Some estimates put the size of the funds at $2.5 trillion by the end of this year (in contrast, hedge funds are thought to have a mere $1.6 trillion), with another $450 billion in transfers from reserves being added annually. Including capital appreciation, the amount could swell to $12 trillion by 2015.

The world's entire supply of shares is $55 trillion, and bonds account for a similar amount. Sovereign-wealth funds could soon become the most important buyers of such assets, and many others besides. If so, the world will witness the intriguing spectacle of its largest private companies being owned by governments whose belief in capitalism is often partial.

The last time governments were this involved in sinking money into private assets, the process tended to be called nationalisation. Now the funds are invested both abroad and domestically. A new term will have to be coined: internationalisation, perhaps.

the Blackstone deal:
“Crony capitalism? It is a marriage made in heaven—a partnership that does not want investors to ask questions with a country whose firms do not want investors to ask questions.

It is widely believed that by having China as a partner, Blackstone will receive preferential access to China's market (as well as providing China with experience it clearly covets on how to set up its own domestic private-equity industry).

May 29, 2007

Carbon nanotubes align and spread evenly on bubbles

Nanotubes on the surface of a bubble will align and spread evenly on the surface.

This finding fits in nicely with the concept of giant space bubbles that was reported on this site. If the two ideas can be combined then space bubbles made from carbon nanotubes would be possible. This would allow for stronger and lighter walls. It could also be a means of forming large carbon nanotube solar sails.

Bubbles of epoxy mixture containing nanowires or nanotubes line the materials up neatly, and can be caught on flat plates (Image: Nature)

Bubbles were produced by pouring the epoxy mixture over a metal plate with a gas inlet at the centre. Turning on the gas creates a bubble and a metal ring above the plate catches hold as it grows. As the bubble expands to more than 25cm wide and 50cm tall, portions of film are deposited on surrounding pieces of flat silicon or plastic.

The nanomaterials contained in the mixture were found to have aligned themselves vertically, towards the top of the bubble. Varying the concentration of tubes or wires in the mixture altered the density of nanomaterials but not their alignment.

Exactly why the tubes line up is not known, although the researchers suspect that stress generated on the surface of the bubble, as it expands, pulls the tubes and wires into line. They add that having a simple way to align nanowires and nanotubes with a particular density could help integrate such components into electronic and optical devices.

To prove this, the team created arrays of transistors using bubbles containing silicon nanowires. Electrodes and an additional layer of insulator were patterned onto a plate coated using the bubble technique to make many field effect transitors that exploit the semiconductor properties of the nanowires.

China's One child policy status

There has been rioting over enforcement of China's one child policy

The central authorities had asked for positive financial incentives to support the population growth reduction plans. Local officials had forced some abortions.

The one child policy always had gaps and was intended for only one generation. It has reduced the population growth by 400 million by some estimates.

The growing wealth of the Chinese population appears likely to see the policy to continue to fade.

"The number of rich people and celebrities having more than one child is on a rapid increase, and nearly 10 percent of them even have three," Xinhua cited a survey by the Family Planning Commission as saying. A Chinese health official has also said that rural women were risking maternal heath by delivering babies in violation of the restrictions at home or in unregulated clinics.

"Some policy-breaking pregnant women, who dared not apply any financial aid of childbearing for fear of legal punishment, chose to deliver babies at home or in substandard private clinics," Xinhua quoted Vice Minister of Health Jiang Zuojun as saying in a separate report.

Under the family planning policies -- which aim to control the world's largest population of 1.3 billion -- China's urban dwellers are
generally allowed to have one child, while rural families can have two
if the first child is a girl.

In recent years, violations of the policy had been dealt with by smaller fines of up to 5,000 yuan, locals said. Up to 60,000 yuan per extra child.

Fine details

From wikipedia:
In reality, having one child has been promoted as ideal and the law
has been strongly enforced in urban areas, the actual implementation
varies from location to location.[1] In most rural areas, families are
allowed to have two children, if the first child is female, or
disabled.[2] Second children are subject to birth spacing (usually 3
or 4 years). Additional children will result in large fines.

The one child policy was designed from the outset to be a one
generation policy.[5] The one-child policy is now enforced at the
provincial level, and enforcement varies; some provinces have relaxed
the restrictions. Some provinces and cities such as Beijing permit two
"only child" parents to have two children. Henan province, with a
population of about 100 million, does not allow this exception

Households with 25000-40000 yuan per year. They can afford the lower fines.
2007 41 million households (20%) out of 205 million
2009 73 million households (32%) out of 220 million
2011 96 million households (40%) out of 240 million
2015 140 million households (50%) out of 280 million

Those with 40000-100000 yuan per year
2007 21 million households (10%) out of 205 million
2009 24 million households (11%) out of 220 million
2011 29 million households (12%) out of 240 million
2013 39 million households(15%) out of 260 million
2015 59 million households (21.2%) out of 280 million
2025 224 million households (60%) out of 373 million

Those who are richer 100,000+RMB/ year in household income are 0.6% in
2005 or about 1 million households. In 2015, they will be 6% or about
28 million households. In 2025, they are projected to be about 11% or
about 40 million household. The highest fines are no problem for this group.

Broadband speed in different countries

Here is a post on a survey of average broadband speed in different countries Japan and Canada have significantly higher broadband download speeds—61Mbps and 7.6Mbps. Hong Kong is not on the chart but is also a lot faster.

Economists value actual loss of income from bereavement

A british study calculates the average change in income earned caused by the loss of a loved one

For a typical person, that level of unhappiness equated to the following necessary financial amounts in compensation for bereavement.

Loss of a Partner £312,000
Loss of a Child 126,000
Loss of a Mother 22,000
Loss of a Father 21,000
Loss of a Friend 8,000
Loss of a Sibling 1,000

Ex-China drug regulator to be executed

China's former top drug regulator was sentenced to death Tuesday for taking bribes to approve untested medicines, as the country's main quality control agency announced its first recall system targeting unsafe food products.

Clearly this shows that China is serious about cleaning up corruption and food and drug quality. It may shrink the pool of candidates to be the next food and drug regulator. A bad performance review would send you looking for a ticket out the country. No attaboy Brownies in China (the Katrina FEMA guys getting pats on the back.)

May 28, 2007

More nuclear oilsands - water

This is a follow up to several articles on the Canadian oilsands and using nuclear reactors to power the oil separation process.

Past articles are here (details on the deal) and here (where I first discuss the whatif the nuclear oilsands are scaled up)

Of the total water allocated in the province, the oil and gas sector actually uses less than half of one per cent for water and steam injection processes (enhanced oil recovery). Water used for these purposes has declined from 88.7 million cubic metres in 1973 to 47.5 million cubic metres in 2001 – 37 million cubic metres of this was non-saline (fresh) water, 10.5 million was saline or brackish water. (Source: Water Use for Injection Purposes in Alberta report, Alberta Environment, 2003)

A CANDU reactor would (700MW) would generate 420,000 barrels per day of steam. A cubic meter is 8.38 barrels. Therefore, the (700MW) reactor would generate 18.3 million cubic meters of steam per year. 57.4 million cubic meters of steam for the 2.2 GW twin reactors. Water expands to 1700 times its volume in steam.
So the 2.2 GW reactor would be using 33,800 cubic meters of water for that amount of steam. Scaling up that amount of water usage 100 times would be well within the bounds of the water allocated for steam and water injection. The steam for the nuclear plants does not seem to be the limiting factor. Also, as I not further down this article 90% of the water can be recovered and recycled in the SAGD process.

The oil and gas industries complete allocation is 432.4 million cubic meters of water. (4.6% of 9.4 billion cubic meters of water).

The oil and gas industries gets 178.6 million cubic feet of water for steam and water injection. (1.9% of 9.4 billion cubic metres of water). This amount could get increased if needed.

If agriculture had to give up some of its water allocation, then in theory 33% of the the 9.4 billion cubic meters of water might go to oil and gas. The re-allocation can be reduced by using wastewater (the city people use the water and then the waste can be used by the oil industry) from the 11% of the water (1 billion cubic meters) that is used for Municiple water. The oilsands industry could be scaled up 65 times from 2001 levels even still using the same wasteful methods as used in 2001.

Up to the end of 2001, Alberta had allocated over 9.4 billion cubic metres of water annually for a variety of uses. Allocations from surface water sources account for 98 per cent of this total; the remaining two per cent are from groundwater sources.

For 2001, the oil and gas sector was licensed to use 4.6 per cent of all the water allocated in Alberta; less than half (1.9 per cent) of this water is allocated for water and steam injection operations. By comparison, the agriculture sector (including irrigation) was licensed to use the largest amount of water of any economic sector, at approximately 46 per cent. Municipal water supplies accounted for 11 per cent.

On page 25 of this report (Technology roadmap for the oilsands), it has chart which shows that thermal (steam) extraction of oilsands was using about 7 million cubic meters of water. This produced 125000 bpd. Scaled up 200 times. It would be 1.4 billion cubic meters of water. 15% of Alberta's water. It would mean re-allocating water or re-using wasteawater or recycling more of the SAGD water and being more efficient, but it is feasible. Especially if there was great need because of any potential peak oil situations.

A criticism of some of this is that "even the oil industry is not looking at more than 4 million bpd from the oilsands". That is because the oil industry does not believe in peak oil. They are looking at 4 million bpd and thinking about new markets they would need to find to sell it.

So in summary, (since all the dots connections have to be spelled out):

1. There is enough water in Alberta to scale up, even if water inefficient
processes from 2001 are scaled up.
2. The water/steam for the nuclear reactors is not that large a demand
and can be scaled up and the nuclear reactor/SAGD process is more
water efficient than current oilsand methods
3. The steam from cooling any nuclear reactor used for SAGD can be 90% recycled
4. The water for the nuclear reactors can be wastewater
5. The SAGD process is more water efficient than other methods
currently in use in the oilsands.
6. It would be better for more efficient water methods to be used so that scaling up is comfortable using the current water allocation (178.6 million cubic meters/year) or the current allocation plus wastewater (1 billion cubic meters/year)

Also reviewing the other points that I have made in a thread on the oildrum:

In March 2006, href="http://www.canducanada.ca/eng/team.html">Canada's leading private sector companies in the nuclear and power plant field, Babcock & Wilcox Canada, GE Canada, Hitachi Canada and SNC-Lavalin Nuclear joined together with Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) to create Team CANDU. The financial backing from those companies means that cost overruns will be borne by them and not by the Canadian tax

The project (the first 2.2 GW twin reactors) is expected to cost C$5.5 to 6.2 billion.

The 6 most recent CANDU reactors in S Korea and China were on time and on budget.

the CANDU reactor in Qinshan

Another point is that a CANDU reactor href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Candu#Fuel_cycles" target=blank>Can
generate 30-40% more energy from Light water reactor "waste" or unburned fuel and CANDU reactors can also breed Thorium.

CANDU fuel cycles

Форма для связи


Email *

Message *