A “forest” of molecules holds the promise of turning waste heat into electricity. UA physicists discovered that because of quantum effects, electron waves traveling along the backbone of each molecule interfere with each other, leading to the buildup of a voltage between the hot and cold electrodes (the golden structures on the bottom and top). (Rendering by Justin Bergfield)
University of Arizona physicists have discovered a new way of harvesting waste heat and turning it into electrical power. Taking advantage of quantum effects, the technology holds great promise for making cars, power plants, factories and solar panels more efficient.
“We anticipate the thermoelectric voltage using our design to be about 100 times larger than what others have achieved in the lab,” Stafford added.
Molecular thermoelectric devices could help solve an issue currently plaguing photovoltaic cells harvesting energy from sunlight.
“Solar panels get very hot and their efficiency goes down,” Stafford said. “You could harvest some of that heat and use it to generate additional electricity while simultaneously cooling the panel and making its own photovoltaic process more efficient.”
“With a very efficient thermoelectric device based on our design, you could power about 200 100-Watt light bulbs using the waste heat of an automobile,” he said. “Put another way, one could increase the car’s efficiency by well over 25 percent, which would be ideal for a hybrid since it already uses an electrical motor.”
Using computer simulations, Bergfield then “grew” a forest of molecules sandwiched between two electrodes and exposed the array to a simulated heat source.
“As you increase the number of benzene rings in each molecule, you increase the power generated,” Bergfield said.
The secret to the molecules’ capability to turn heat into power lies in their structure: Like water reaching a fork in a river, the flow of electrons along the molecule is split in two once it encounters a benzene ring, with one flow of electrons following along each arm of the ring.
Bergfield designed the benzene ring circuit in such a way that in one path the electron is forced to travel a longer distance around the ring than the other. This causes the two electron waves to be out of phase once they reunite upon reaching the far side of the benzene ring. When the waves meet, they cancel each other out in a process known as quantum interference. When a temperature difference is placed across the circuit, this interruption in the flow of electric charge leads to the buildup of an electric potential – voltage – between the two electrodes.
Wave interference is a concept exploited by noise-cancelling headphones: Incoming sound waves are met with counter waves generated by the device, wiping out the offending noise.
We predict an enormous order-dependent quantum enhancement of thermoelectric effects in the vicinity of higher-order interferences in the transmission spectrum of a nanoscale junction. Single-molecule junctions based on 3,3′-biphenyl and polyphenyl ether (PPE) are investigated in detail. The nonequilibrium thermodynamic efficiency and power output of a thermoelectric heat engine based on a 1,3-benzene junction are calculated using many-body theory and compared to the predictions of the figure-of-merit ZT.