Rosatom said Feb 7 that design documents for the fast-neutron SVBR-100 had been drafted ahead of the planned construction of an industrial unit at JSC NIIAR, Russia’s Research Institute of Atomic Reactors in Dimitrovgrad.
The SVBR-100 is a 100-megawatt small modular reactor with lead-bismuth coolant. When using mixed oxide plutonium-uranium (MOX) fuel, it operates on a closed fuel cycle.
* modular design enables plants with different capacity in multiples of 100 MWe.
* standardized reactor module that is factory built
* allows advanced methods of flow arrangement of construction and reduces the investment cycle of NPP construction
* the design could be used for floating reactors
* can be used to replace coal-fired boilers especially in eastern Europe which has a lot of low grade dirty coal burned to make electricity.
* replace decommissioned nuclear reactors
* project is targeting construction of a pilot plant by 2017
* three main partners: Atomoenergoproekt OJSC (Moscow); Gidropress OJSC and the Russian state research centre in Obninsk, the Energy Physics Institute.
The SVBR-100 is designed to 60 years of operation.
The current schedule is to begin construction for 2013-2017.
Reactor SVBR-100 safety
* inherent self-protection and passive safety of the reactor
* chemically inert lead-bismuth coolant (LBC)
* integral arrangement of the primary circuit equipment in a single vessel operating at approximately atmospheric pressure.
* Fusible locks of auxiliary safety rods to provide passive shutdown of the reactor in an event of coolant’s overheating over 700 °C caused by damage of all servodrives of the basic emergency protection system under over-normative external impacts
* Bursting disk (membrane) to prevent over-pressurization of the reactor vessel that may be caused by steam pressure being over 1.0 MPa in an event of postulated large leak in the SG (simultaneously rupture of several tubes)
* Passive removal of residual heat in an event of blacking out the NPP and impossibility to remove heat via the SG is assured by transferring heat via walls of the monoblock vessel and protective casing to water: evaporation of water allows approximately a 4 days’ grace period
* uses uranium with enrichment below 20 % while using oxide uranium fuel at the first stage
* extended core lifetime without refueling (7-8 years)
MOX fuel, CBR > 1 :
* For UO2 starting fuel load, closing of the fuel cycle can be realized in 15 years after two lifetimes. At this, the consumption of natural uranium during 60 years will be by 30 % less than its consumption by WWER reactors in terms of 1 GWe