Modern cities like Rome of old were not built in a day. Until we get molecular nanotechnology fully developed a goal like Rome in a day will probably be beyond the possible. However, we can get far closer to far more rapid development and redevelopment.
One big shift would be power and communication that could be factory built in shipping container sizes and made usable with minimal onsite additional infrastructure.
Nuclear fission or fusion that could fit in a shipping container and could safely and effectively transmit wireless power to devices or produce charge portable energy storage or make liquid fuel for local use. If those things come together regions that are underdeveloped because of power constraints would be able rapidly build up.
If you could get shipping container civilization legos for power, communications, water, computing, factories, and buildings.
More modest goals would be to produce such systems to rapidly repair and improve places that currently have deficiencies that require quicker fixes. A few megawatts of stable.power could stabilize power grids and make systems more reliable.
such systematically could also provide faster relief in a disaster.
Things could come together to get us well on.the way to modern cities in a year by 2016.
Broad group of China should get farther along with factories for rapid skyscraper construction. They have demonstrated assembling 2 stories per day for 15 stories in 6 days and 30 stories in 2 weeks. Multiple buildings could be built at the same time and improving to 4 stories per day for onsite work does not seem unreasonable. Ten buildings at the same time would be 500 thirty story buildings after one year.
For governance cities that have higher economic growth would be run more like the economic development zones.