June 04, 2011

Iraq sees oil output at 3 million bpd by endof 2011 and up to 4 million bpd by end of 2012

Canadian oil sands projected to produce 3.7 million barrels per day by 2025

Oil sands growth and new production from existing conventional oil reserves will drive Canadian crude oil production to about 4.7 million barrels per day by 2025 according to the latest forecast from the Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers. (40 pages) This is about 401,000 b/d higher than previously forecast, due primarily to the higher conventional production and the inclusion of some additional in situ projects that were previously put on hold.

Canadian Crude Oil Production Forecast* (million b/d)

                              2010 Actual  2011   2015   2020   2025

Oil Sands                            1.5    1.6    2.2    3.0    3.7
Conventional                         0.9    1.0    1.0    0.9    0.7
Pentanes/Condensate                  0.1    0.1    0.1    0.1    0.1
Offshore                             0.3    0.3    0.2    0.2    0.1
Total Canadian Crude Oil Production  2.8    2.9    3.5    4.2    4.7

iPhone 5 rumors, ios 5 and icloud

iPhone 5 is rumored to use curved glass like the iPod nano and the Samsung Nexus S The iPhone 5 is also rumored to have an 8 megapixel camera.

Apple announced in a press release that they will present iOS 5, the new software platform that will support mobile devices such as iPhones and iPads.

Apple CEO Steve Jobs and a team of Apple executives will kick off the company’s annual Worldwide Developers Conference (WWDC) with a keynote address on Monday, June 6 at 10:00 a.m. At the keynote, Apple will unveil its next generation software - Lion, the eighth major release of Mac OS X; iOS 5, the next version of Apple’s advanced mobile operating system which powers the iPad, iPhone and iPod touch; and iCloud, Apple’s upcoming cloud services offering.

Cost to increase car fleet gas fuel efficiency

The U.S. Auto Industry and the Market of 2025 (45 page) The Center for Automotive Research (CAR) analysis calculates fuel economy costs to be from $4,190 to $6,435 per vehicle and a lifetime fuel savings of only $1,690 to $2,693.

* a 10.2% net vehicle price increase can enable fleetwide 41.7 mpg
* a 22.3% net vehicle price increase at 60.1 mpg

Using Loss of Life Expectancy Statistics for a plan to get everyone to live to 100 years or more

Risks in Perspective by BernardL.Cohen,Ph.D. 2003. the Journal of Physicians and Surgeons (H/T Al Fin) Perhaps the most meaningful way of putting risks into perspective is to consider the loss of life expectancy (LLE) that they cause. The chart is mostly for US cities. World poverty and air pollution have larger impacts on populations outside the United States.

One of the greatest risks to an individual is living in poverty: LLE is 9 years for 19 large U.S. cities and for Montreal. In Britain, the difference in life expectancy between professional people and unskilled laborers is 7.2 years, and in Finland it is also 7.2 years. When Canadian men are ranked by income, those in the 90th percentile live 6 years longer than those in the 10th percentile. The latter have a higher mortality rate by 32 percent for heart disease and stroke, by 34 percent for cancer, and by 88 percent for accidents, poison, and violence. On an international scale, poverty plays a much bigger role – life expectancy is typically 30 years longer in affluent countries than in poor countries. For example, in 1990 it was 77 years in Japan, Sweden, and Canada compared with 38 years in Afghanistan and Gambia and 42 years in Ethiopia and Guinea; the world average was 61 years.

By 2030, over 6 billion of the total population of 8.5 billion will be considered middle class or wealthier ($10-100 per day or better) and those people will be urbanized as well. China, India, Brazil, Indonesia and many other countries could make massive economic progress if they get their policies right.

Carnival of Space 200

June 03, 2011

Protecting coastlines and generating wave power by reflecting or absorbing 90 per cent of wave energy

Xinhua Hu and colleagues at Fudan University in Shanghai, China, have come up with a way to create shield against water waves that, unlike Enoch and Guenneau's set-up, could also double up as a wave-energy plant. Hu's team proposes using a rectangular array of stationary cylinders fixed to the sea floor in coastal waters. "The resonating cylinder array that we studied can be seen as a type of metamaterial for water waves," Hu claims.

Each hollow cylinder would be split vertically into quarter-circle arcs that fill up with water, and discharge it, depending on the water level surrounding them (see diagram). Although the cylinders are completely still, this constant filling and discharging is a form of oscillation and so is analogous to the electromagnetic oscillators that interfere with light waves in an invisibility cloak.

By adjusting the width of the vertical slits, the size of the cylinders, and their spacing, Hu calculates that the array could be tuned to water waves of a particular frequency so that it drains the peaks and then discharges to fill in the wave troughs - in effect dismantling those waves.

Using several arrays with different spacing and various sizes of cylinder, it might even be possible to block waves of several different frequencies - and perhaps even tsunamis, Hu claims. The result should be a huge reduction in waves within the array, and as a result, protection for any coastline or shore behind it, he says.

Physical Review Letters - Negative effective gravity in water waves by periodic resonator arrays

Over 4000 books of the National Academies Press are available as free PDFs

As of June 2, 2011, all PDF versions of books published by the National Academies Press (NAP) will be downloadable to anyone free of charge. There are more than 4,000 books plus future reports produced by NAP--publisher for the National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Engineering, Institute of Medicine, and National Research Council.

Space Solar Power proposal by Keith Henson

Keith Henson has an update of his plan for space based solar power up at the Oildrum.

Power satellites convert sunlight (via photovoltaic or thermal cycle) to electrical power and then turn the power into microwaves beamed to the ground and converted back to electrical power.

Critical to achieving costs of $100/kg or less to get material to geosynchronous orbit is to use spaceplanes that can fly frequently and a laser boosting system. This launch complexity would not be needed if there were simpler ways to achieve the cost target of $100/kg or less. However, Keith is putting together systems that have active development and some momentum towards actually being developed within the next 10-20 years.

Power satellites are a way of harvesting dilute solar energy with several advantages over the solar PV on the ground or rooftops:

* A system of power satellites scales to human civilization's needs (tens of TW).
* They don't need storage since their location (the 24 hour orbit, geosynchronous or GEO) is illuminated 99% of the time. (Satellite TV antennas point to a location on that orbit.)
* No day-night cycle and no clouds or air gives power satellites an average advantage of about nine times over the same area of solar collectors on the ground.
* Power satellites use relatively little material. Being in orbit (zero gravity), and no wind they can be much lighter per kW than collecting sunlight on the ground.
* They have a very short energy payback time.

They have some disadvantages, however:

* For optical reasons, they don't scale down to small sizes; 5 GW is about as small as you want to make one.
* At 50% loss electricity-in space to electricity-on-the-ground, the cost is doubled from one cent per kWh to two. On the other hand, that's 40 times less cost than transmitting the same power over wires for the same distance.
* They take a large investment to get the cost of transporting parts to GEO down to where they make economic sense.

Pandora IPO to raise about $123 million and about $1.4 billion in valuation

X-Prize director describes incentive prizes in an interview with Sander Olson

Incentives prizes have been successfully used for centuries in order to solve various technical and engineering problems. In the 20th century the Ortega prize resulted in the Lindbergh transatlantic flight. In 1995 the X-Prize foundation was founded with the express purpose of fostering a series of prizes to stimulate technological development. In an interview with Sander Olson, X-prize director Erika Wagner discusses the history of the X-prize, the enormous potential Return On Investment (ROI) that a prize can generate, and the technologies that she would like to see developed in the near future.

Erika Wagner

Question: Tell us a little about the history of awarding prizes for technological innovations. How far does this concept go back?

The concept of rewarding technical innovations with high profile prizes goes back at least to the 17th century, when the British Government offered the Longitude prize. And the basic concept is even older than that. In fact, there were actually longitude prizes offered in the 16th and 167th centuries by the Spanish and Dutch Governments. As opposed to traditional programs of grants, contracts and patronage, prizes work particularly well when there is a problem for which there are multiple potential solutions, but the optimal solution isn't known.

Salt loving plants in India

A pilot project to see if cash crops can be grown in the salty ground of India's coastal areas was launched in 2010. The area in Tamil Nadu state will house dozens of species of halophytes - or salt-loving plants - that can be used for producing cash crops.

Halophytes can be used to produce edible oils, medicines, vegetables, and cattle and fish feed. Halophytes can be found throughout the coastal areas of India.

Saline water plants can also be used to produce fine chemicals, biofuels and even building materials. Field studies conducted in the US and East Africa have suggested that halophytes such as sea asparagus can be grown as commercial crops.

June 02, 2011

Phase Change Memory-Based "Moneta" System is up to seven times faster than flash memory drives

A view of the internals of the Moneta storage array with phase change memory modules installed

A University of California, San Diego faculty-student team is about to demonstrate a first-of-its kind, phase-change memory solid state storage device that provides performance thousands of times faster than a conventional hard drive and up to seven times faster than "current state-of-the-art" solid-state drives (SSDs, flash memory). Micron has released new flash memory SSDs that have faster read and write speeds. “Moneta,” uses phase-change memory (PCM), an emerging data storage technology that stores data in the crystal structure of a metal alloy called a chalcogenide

AIDS tranmission could be stopped with about a 40% increase in funding and effort

About $16 billion a year is spent on AIDS in poor and middle-income countries. Half is generated locally and half is foreign aid. A report in this week’s Lancet suggests a carefully crafted mixture of approaches that does not involve treating all those without symptoms would bring great benefit for not much more than this—a peak of $22 billion in 2015, and a fall thereafter. Moreover, most of the extra spending would be offset by savings on the treatment of those who would have been infected, but were not—some 12m people, if the boffins have done their sums right. At $500 per person per year, the benefits would far outweigh the costs in purely economic terms.

The drugs used to treat AIDS may also stop its transmission. If that proves true, the drugs could achieve much of what a vaccine would. An extra 40% in spending for the next 5 to 10 years could stop the transmission AIDS and then enable the disease to be fought more cheaply than what is currently done.

Researchers extend the time a superconducting flux qubit can stay in superposition using microwave pulses

a, Scanning electron micrograph (SEM) of a device (qubit and SQUID shown) with identical design parameters as the one measured during this work [1]. b, Schematic. Qubit loop (shaded) and galvanically coupled read-out SQUID. The crosses are Josephson junctions; R, bias resistors; C, shunt capacitances; L, inductances.

Researchers at MIT, MIT Lincoln Laboratory, Japan’s Institute of Physical and Chemical Research and NEC describe a new technique that extends the time a qubit can stay in superposition. The same technique can be used to measure the physical characteristics of qubits that knock them out of superposition in the first place, paving the way to better qubit designs. The previous published record for keeping a superconducting qubit in superposition was less than 10 microseconds and now it is 23 microseconds.

Dwave Systems uses superconducting flux qubits.

Nature Physics - Noise spectroscopy through dynamical decoupling with a superconducting flux qubit

Levels of Affluence and Wealth in America income levels and net worth

A major predictor of wealth is one's earning a high income before the age of 34. Households earning between $100,000 and $199,999, identified as the "Emerging" tier, have a far greater chance of eventually crossing the golden threshold of $200,000 than those who achieve household income of $100,000 later in life, identified above as "Aspiring."

Net Worth

Millionaire households worldwide represented just 0.9 percent of all households but owned 39 percent of global wealth, up from 37 percent in 2009. The number of millionaire households increased by 12.2 percent in 2010 to about 12.5 million.

Saudi Arabia plans 16 nuclear reactors by 2030 and Luthuania plans two reactors

1. Saudi Arabia plans to construct 16 nuclear power reactors over the next 20 years at a cost of more than 300 billion riyals ($80 billion), according to Abdul Ghani bin Melaibari, coordinator of scientific collaboration at King Abdullah City for Atomic and Renewable Energy. Speaking during the Gulf Environment Forum in Jeddah, he said, "After ten years we will have the first two reactors. After that, every year we will establish two, until we have 16 of them by 2030.

Groupon IPO and the Bay Area Startup Ecosystem

San Francisco-based VentureLoop reports that job openings at venture-backed startups in the Bay Area have more than doubled to 3,609, compared with 1,739 before the financial crisis, in 2008. That compares with a 69 percent increase to 3,311 from 1,961 over the same period nationwide.

The index relies on data from 13 top venture-capital firms, including Benchmark Capital, Sequoia Capital and Founders Fund and illustrates the rapid buildup of demand for talent in the region.

June 01, 2011

Standard Chartered Projects China to be largest economy by 2020 and India to be third largest

India in the Super-Cycle by Standard Chartered Bank - 64 page report

Standard Chartered’s initial report into the global super-cycle, published in November 2010, explained how the world economy is now experiencing its third super-cycle, a period of strong growth lasting a generation or more and aimed to put some context around the considerable uncertainties and risks facing the global economy. However, just as importantly, the report stressed the importance of recognising the upside opportunities now being witnessed by the shift in the balance of economic and financial power from the West to the East.

For India, the policy framework will be particularly important as it seeks to overcome its regulatory burden and address its infrastructure needs. The initial focus is on its hard infrastructure, such as its transport system but its soft infrastructure is also key, with the need to see continued improvement in education and skills. India’s population is rising. Over the next twenty years the working-age population should increase by over 200 million and with half of the total population under twenty-five, India has a demographic dividend, but only if it delivers the policies and economic growth needed

Longevity studies for extreme exercise, RasGrf1, embryonic stem cells and hormosis

1. Increased Average Longevity among the "Tour de France" Cyclists. Tour de France Cyclists live 8 years longer than the general population. The longevity of 834 cyclists from France (n=465), Italy (n=196) and Belgium (n=173) who rode the Tour de France between the years 1930 and 1964. Dates of birth and death of the cyclists were obtained on December 31, 2007. We calculated the percentage of survivors for each age and compared them with the values for the pooled general population of France, Italy and Belgium for the appropriate age cohorts. We found a very significant increase in average longevity (17%) of the cyclists when compared with the general population

2. Hormosis - small damage and longevity

Fightaging - Hormesis is the process by which a little damage or stress to our biology can lead to a longer life span, as it wakes up the repair mechanisms and makes them do a better job than they otherwise would - a net gain in resiliency. This review aims to summarize published evidence that several longevity-promoting interventions may converge by causing an activation of mitochondrial oxygen consumption to promote increased formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). These serve as molecular signals to exert downstream effects to ultimately induce endogenous defense mechanisms culminating in increased stress resistance and longevity, an adaptive response more specifically named mitochondrial hormesis or mitohormesis.

Extending life span by increasing oxidative stress

German Utility will try to bill the German Government for Nuclear Shutdown

Energy utility EOn is counting the cost of Germany's new energy policies and preparing to put its case to government for a multi-billion euro compensation deal.

The utility was told on 31 May that three reactors representing 3463 MWe of capacity would not be allowed to restart after a knee-jerk shutdown order in the early days of the Fukushima crisis.

In addition, the firm's remaining four units, worth 5405 MWe, will have to shut down earlier than proposed by legislation put through earlier this year. Isar 2 had been promised to operate until 2034, but 12 years were cut from that this week. Based on its lifetime capacity factor of over 89%, the 1400 MWe unit could have produced 132 billion kWh in that time - with a market value of over €16 billion ($23 billion) at today's prices.

Rossi Provides More Answers about the Energy Catalyzer and Nasa's Dennis Bushnell lists it as the number one energy solution

Three E-cats without insulation and one insulated. Text in blue indicates hydrogen inlet, main heater, auxiliary heater and water inlet. Foto: Giuseppe Levi

Focardi and Rossi have demonstrated a device that produces copper which they say is due to the fusion of atomic nuclei of nickel and hydrogen, the ingredients that feed their reactor. The 'Missing Mass' has been transformed into energy: it is in the order of a few kilowatts, two hundred times the energy that was the beginning of the reaction.

Rossi -
Beta decay has nothing to do with my process, Widom Larsen theory has nothing to do with my process.

Rossi has stated he now has an understanding of what exactly is taking place in his device, and that "Widom Larsen" theory does not explain it.

Rossi - 1 gram of matter (Nickel) produces 23 million kWh of power. Rossi is describing the energy that is generated as thermal/heat and at a low grade temperature. Converting to electricity would be at about 5% efficiency.

1 kg would produce 23 terawatt hours (heat)
100 kg would produce 2300 TWh
1 ton would produce 23,000 TWh

World production of electricity in 2008 was 20261 TWh.
In 2008, total worldwide energy consumption was 474 exajoules (474×10^18
J=132,000 TWh).

Rossi - Should all the energy of the world be made with this system, only the 1% of the world production of Ni would be consumed.

World nickel production has been about 1.4 to 1.6 million tons per year

However, only 1% of Nickel is the Nickel 64 isotope, which is the reactive part.

Rossi did not reconcile and explain the two statements of power generation per gram and nickel production. I have provided the statistics and information about how the Rossi process is supposed to work to try to fill the gap.

Interview with Dwave System's CTO Geordie Rose at Forbes

Dwave systems has produced a 128 qubit quantum computer called Dwave One that uses quantum annealing to solve problems. They sold a system to Lockheed Martin for $10 million including support services.

Dwave Systems CTO Geordie Rose was interviewed by Alex Knapp at Forbes.

Applications for Dwave One -
D-Wave One is the first in a line of products that help people begin to incorporate quantum computing into the way that they solve problems. D-Wave’s systems are best at solving the types of problems found in the fields of optimization and machine learning. These problems can be broadly described as data analysis and pattern recognition problems.

The D-Wave One allows users to experiment with algorithms and APIs we have developed at D-Wave or to implement their own learning algorithms to explore ways to attack these tasks.Being quantum mechanical in nature, The D-Wave One machine is also excellent at simulating quantum mechanical systems of interest to materials scientists, physicists and chemists. As such they may also prove extremely useful as academic research tools.

May 31, 2011

Lockheed Martin paid $10 million for a Dwave System adiabatic quantum computer

MIT Technology Review - Lockheed Martin paid 10 million to startup D-Wave Systems for the computer and support using it.

The new system, called the D-Wave One, is not significantly more capable than a conventional computer. But it could be a step on the road to fuller implementations of quantum computing, which theoreticians have shown could easily solve problems that are impossible for other computers, such as defeating encryption systems by solving mathematical problems at incredible speed.

In a throwback to the days when computers were the size of rooms, the system bought by Lockheed, called the D-Wave One, occupies 100 square feet. Rather than acting as a stand-alone computer, it operates as a specialized helper to a conventional computer running software that learns from past data and makes predictions about future events. The defense company says it intends to use the new purchase to aid identification of bugs in products that are complex combinations of software and hardware. The goal is to reduce cost overruns caused by unforeseen technical problems with such systems, Lockheed spokesperson Thad Madden says. Such challenges were partly behind the recent news that the company's F-35 strike fighter is more than 20 percent over budget

Desertec is a proposal for terawatts of wind and solar to be located in Libya and Algeria and Saudi Arabia for European Power

Desertec is a solar and wind power plan to locate large amounts of renewable power generation in North Africa and other deserts of the world.

The proposal is to repeat the political situation that exists with OPEC and oil with renewable solar and wind. Locate the power in the exact same area that has all of the political unrest and instability now.

The square labeled "TRANS-CSP Mix EUMENA 2050" indicates the surface needed for solar collectors to realize DESERTEC in EU-MENA (according to the TRANS-CSP scenario by German Aerospace Center DLR). This way the needs for seawater desalination and about two-thirds of the rising electricity consumption in the MENA region could be provided and about 17 percent of the European electricity consumption in 2050 (2,940 TWh/a, 120x120 km² in total).

The current proposal is to generate about 12% more power than is currently generated from nuclear power by developing solar and wind for 400 billion euros if it goes according the plan by 2050.

The detailed financial and technical proposal is due in 2012. So currently it is a back of napkin proposal and they hope to progress to vaporware in 2012, all for a bad idea for Europe to fund a solar and wind OPEC by 2050.

Drug can reverse overgrown hearts to help prevent heart failure

A promising cancer treatment drug can restore function of a heart en route to failure from high blood pressure, researchers at UT Southwestern Medical Center have found.

The drug, a type of histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor being evaluated in numerous ongoing clinical trials, has been shown to reverse the harmful effects of autophagy in heart muscle cells of mice. Autophagy is a natural process by which cells eat their own proteins to provide needed resources in times of stress. The new study appears in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

Berkeley Lab Researchers Create Nanoscale Waveguide for Future Photonics

The hybrid plasmon polariton (HPP) nanoscale waveguide consists of a semiconductor strip separated from a metallic surface by a low dielectric gap. Schematic shows HPP waveguide responding when a metal slit at the guide’s input end is illuminated. (courtesy of Zhang group)

The creation of a new quasiparticle called the “hybrid plasmon polariton” may throw open the doors to integrated photonic circuits and optical computing for the 21st century. Researchers with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)’s Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) have demonstrated the first true nanoscale waveguides for next generation on-chip optical communication systems.

Nature Communications - Experimental Demonstration of Low-Loss Optical Waveguiding at Deep Sub-wavelength Scales.

Nvidia demos dynamic raytracing using Kal-el Quadcore Tegra CPU combined with a 12-core GPU chip

Nvidia's Kal-El combines a battery-friendly, powerhouse of a quad-core processor with a 12-core NVIDIA GPU that supports 3D stereo. It will be the first mobile quad-core processor.

Nvidia has a video that features a demo they created called “Glowball,” which draws its namesake from the feature character: a brilliant lit, bouncing ball. The ball serves as the light source. As it rolls, it casts its effect on different objects. This shows off the power of true dynamic lighting, rendered in real-time with physics (no canned animations here, folks). Thanks to Project Kal-El, Glowball’s true dynamic lighting brings more life and interactivity to a 3D environment. This marks the first time this type of lighting is feasible on a mobile device. Glowball also leverages the accelerometer inside the device, affecting real-time movements of drapes throughout the game. As the user tilts the device, the gravity in the scene changes and drapes respond accordingly.

Switzerland and Germany plan to phase out their use of nuclear power

Switzerland generates roughly 40% of its energy from the country's five nuclear reactors. The rest comes mostly from the more than 1,000 hydropower plants located in the Alps and along Switzerland's rivers. Ms. Leuthard said the government hasn't yet fixed a date for when the last nuclear-power station will go offline, but experts believe such a step could happen around 2040.

Switzerland's decision to discontinue the country's nuclear-power plants comes as a shock to Swiss utilities. Leading power companies Axpo Holding AG and BKW FMB AG had planned to build two new plants, and pledged to invest some $10 billion. The companies had said new plants are needed if Switzerland wants to avoid being dependent on expensive energy imports. The companies also warned that Swiss industry would suffer from high energy costs.

Germany plans to avoid restarting the seven reactors shut during the moratorium and close the rest by 2022.

Germany plans to double the output of renewables by 2020 to reach 35% of generation, Germany also wants to cut its carbon dioxide emissions by 40 compared to 1990 levels. However, fossil fuels remain untouched by the new policy, the purpose of it being purely to replace nuclear with renewables. Some 19 fossil (coal mainly) power plants are under construction in Germany to come online within a few years.

Intel Pushes Ultrabooks alternative to tablets

EETimes - Intel still lacks a design win in a top tier tablet. Intel is pushing down the power and size of notebook computers. Intel will describe Ultrabooks at the Computex conference in Taiwan.

The Ultrabook is a work in progress. Early versions will arrive in cases just 20mm thick and price points under $1,000 using versions of Intel 32nm Sandy Bridge processor later this year. AsusTek will be among the companies to ship the systems with its UX21 debuting before the end of the year.

ZDNet - The CEO of Asustek, Jonney Shih, came onstage to show one of the first ultrabooks. The Asus UX Series is an 11.6-inch laptop with an aluminum unibody design that measures only 0.67 inches at it thickest point but includes a second-generation Core processor.

Two new Intel features
1) Intel Smart Connect, lets your laptop receive system and application updates when it is in suspend. To do this, Smart Connect periodically wakes up your laptop, checks for updates and then puts it back to sleep.

2)Intel Rapid Start, uses a flash memory cache to store the system state so that it can recover from hibernation in about five to six seconds. This is useful because a system on standby only lasts about two to three days while one in hibernation has a battery life of 30 days,

May 30, 2011

54th Carnival of Nuclear Energy Blogs

The 54th Carnival of Nuclear Energy Blogs is up at Idaho Samizdat

Nuclear Green had coverage of the Third Thorium alliance conference

Edward Kee offered a talk titled, Global Nuclear Power Developments - Asia Leads The Way. Kee noted

Big stories here:
•China’s nuclear build programme is huge – has the potential to shape world nuclear industry for many decades

•Russia internal build of VVER designs will build credibility for export market

•India’s potential buy of imported LWR designs may change the competitive picture, if EPR, ESBWR, or ABWR (or all of these) get orders

•As new nuclear countries make selections, the aggregate world league table will be important

– countries will look for proven designs with real experience and low costs
– will seek a range of support from vendors (government vendors have edge)

Kee also noted that South Korea, China and India were all planning to sell reactors on the global market. Asian reactors cost less than European or American reactors with the Korean APR-1400 costing only 40% of the cost of the French EPR.

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