The theory underlying Mach effects – fluctuations of the restmasses of accelerating objects in which internal energy changes take place – and their use for propulsion is briefly recapitulated. Experimental apparatus based on a very sensitive thrust balance is briefly described. The experimental protocol employed to search for expected Mach effects is laid out, and the results of this experimental investigation are presented. A series of tests conducted to explore the origin of the thrust signals seen are described, and two of those tests – the most likely spurious sources of thrust signals – are considered in some detail. The thrust signals seen, if genuine Mach effects, suggest that “advanced and exotic” propulsion can be achieved with realistic resources.
Advanced and exotic means propellentless high acceleration up to near light speed and even possible stargate wormholes. Recent experiments produced 2-3 micronewtons and a refined theoretical model now more closely expects 3.2 micronewtons based upon the materials and other methods used in this case.
In 1953, Dennis Sciama published a paper, “On the Origin of Inertia” in the Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society wherein he resuscitated Einstein’s idea that the inertia of material objects should be accounted for by a field interaction with the chiefly distant matter in the cosmos. He did not use Einstein’s theory of gravity, general relativity theory, to convey the interaction. Rather, he proposed a vector theory of gravity modeled on Maxwell’s formalism for electrodynamics. Eventually, it was recognized that Sciama’s vector formalism was just an approximation to Einstein’s general relativity theory. But the simplicity and transparency of the vector formalism made plain what was involved in explaining inertial effects as gravitational interactions with chiefly distant “matter” in the universe.
At the most elementary level, if we seek to show that inertial effects are the consequence of the gravitational action of chiefly distant matter in the cosmos, we must show that when a “test particle” is accelerated by an “external” force, the action of gravity due to all of the “matter” in the cosmos just produces the reaction force that opposes the external accelerating force required by Newton’s third law of mechanics. If that is true, and the theory is locally Lorentz invariant, then we can be confident that all of the inertial effects of classical mechanics will follow. We first define the quantities set off in quotation marks in the preceding sentence. A test particle is a massive object, acted upon by the gravity of other objects, of sufficiently small mass that its gravitational effect on other objects is negligible. An external force on the test particle is produced by some agent that is not a part of the test particle. And matter here is understood as everything that gravitates. This, by Einstein’s second law: m = E / C ^2, includes all forms of non-gravitational energy, including zero restmass radiation. Gravitational energy, for some observers, contributes to m, but only in special circumstances as changes in the locally measured gravitational potential are unobservable in general relativity theory
38 KHz Experiment
When the piezoelectric constant is reduced by a factor of 0.29 to correctly replicate the electrostrictive constant, the thrust prediction goes from 11 to 3.2 micronewtons, a value very nearly that observed (2 to 3 micronewtons). Not only does the thrust behavior display the qualitative features expected of a Mach effect thrust, it also is present at the predicted level.
We have seen that when the results of the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe project are taken into consideration, together with the work of Dennis Sciama, Carl Brans, Keneth Nordtvedt, and others, it follows that inertial forces are gravitational in origin. Moreover, an inertial effect that results from the acceleration of bodies with changing internal energies produces fluctuations in the restmasses of the accelerating objects. Those fluctuating restmasses can be used to demonstrate the reality of these “Mach” effects, as described above. That demonstration involves only one of the two Mach effects predicted by theory. But if it is present, then the other effect must exist too. And if it exists, then in principle it should be possible to produce the gargantuan amount of exotic matter needed to make starships and stargates technically feasible. We therefore recommend that the exploration of Mach effects be pursued with resolve.