December 20, 2014

Recent Mach Effect Theory and Experimental Work from presentation to NASA

Theory and Experimental Work on Mach Effect Thrusters (MET) presentation.

How do METs Mach Effect Thrusters work?

• METs depend on “Mach’s principle” being correct.
• Mach’s principle is the proposition that all inertial forces – the forces of reaction in Newton’s third law of mechanics – are produced by the gravitational action of all of the “matter” (everything that gravitates) in the universe.
• In our universe, the conditions needed for this to be true in general relativity are those in fact observed – spatial flatness at cosmic scale.
• When the action of gravity on accelerating local objects is analyzed in relativistically correct fashion, it is found that the rest masses of accelerating objects that are also changing their internal energies (being squished) change. They fluctuate.
• If these rest mass fluctuations are produced periodically, and a second periodic force is brought to bear, you can push heavy, pull light on the fluctuating mass and produce a steady thrust.

The gravitational/inertial effects in question are transients; fluctuations in the rest-masses of objects accelerated by external forces that undergo changes in their internal energies as they are accelerated.

PZT IS THE ACTIVE MASS, (PIEZO-ELECTRIC EFFECT … V)THE EXTERNAL FORCE IS CAUSED BY THE ELECTRO-STRICTIVE FORCE IN PZT, GOES AS V

Experimental Conclusions
• The experimental results suggest that Mach effect exists [3-4 micronewton signal looks clear].
• The thrusts are closer than order of magnitude to those predicted.
• The experimental program aims to increase thrust to commercial levels for satellite station-keeping.

The new experimental results of the previous 6 months. The emphasis has been on a new construction using a single central bolt and annular Lead Zirconate Titanate (PZT) disks. This arrangement closely resembles the readily available tonpilz transducers.
Results obtained by varying the reaction mass, the pre-tensioning of the bolt and also the arrangement of the PZT crystals in the stack.



Thanks to DeltaV at Talkpolywell for the links

December 19, 2014

Theory of a Mach Effect Thruster

Theory of a Mach Effect Thruster

The Mach Effect Thruster (MET) is a device which uses Machs principle in Einsteins general relativity to produce a constant acceleration in a device which is undergoing internal energy changes and mass fluctuations. Machs principle is a statement that the inertia of a body is the result of the gravitational interaction of the body with the rest of the mass-energy in the universe. The MET device requires no fuel as a propellant, it just needs electric power of 100-200 Watts to operate. The thrusts at the present time are small of the order of a few micro-Newtons. The first part of the paper is devoted to experiment and a description of the MET device and apparatus for measuring thrusts. The second half of the paper, we re-introduce the idea of advanced waves, by summarizing Dirac, Wheeler-Feynman and Hoyl-Narlikar. We show how Woodward’s mass fluctuation formula can be derived from first principles using the Hoyl-Narlikar (HN) theory which is a fully Machian version of Einstein’s relativity. HN theory reduces to Einstein’s field equations in the limit of smooth fluid distribution of matter and a simple coordinate transformation.



Dr Sonny White updates on space warping and emdrive experimental work

NASA Ames Research Director’s Colloquium, August 12, 2014. Human space exploration is currently still in Low Earth Orbit. But what would it eventually take for humans to explore the outer solar system? If the ultimate objective is the stars, then what might that look like? How hard is interstellar flight?

Dr. Harold White, Advanced Propulsion Theme Lead for the NASA Engineering Directorate, discusses a couple of advanced propulsion concepts that may one day be useful for helping us reach the stars.

The NASA Ames Director's Colloquium Summer Series was presented by the Office of the Chief Scientist as part of the Center's 75th anniversary celebration.



Significant resources to make Mach Effect Propulsion might have spaceship propulsion within ten years

Journal of Space Exploration - How Long Will It Take To Build Starships?

The theme for Space Technology Applications International Forum II in 2013 was: when will it be possible to build craft capable of reaching the stars in reasonable lengths of time? “Reasonable” was understood to be significantly less than a human lifetime. That can only be done by implementing “exotic” technologies that are presently thought to be the stuff of science fiction. But there is at least one proposal may make such technologies practicable. It rests on “Mach’s principle” as Einstein called it. This paper, which captures the contents of the keynote talk at that conference, recapitulates how we have reached our present pass, and tells of recent experimental developments in the “Mach effects” project. Though a small-scale, table top project, steady progress has been made. For example, switching transients that may have propulsive applications are reported here. Post conference comments on claims that the quantum vacuum can be exploited for propulsive purposes are included. It is shown that such speculations are without merit.

The theory and experiments for Mach Effect Thrusters look good and are worth scaling. If it proves out and does scale with better materials and higher power levels (into the megawatt ranges) then it could enable propellantless propulsion up to 1G space drive and beyond.


UPDATE - we have an article that has excerpts of a recent presentation which simplifies the explanation of the theory and experimental work

Mach Effect Propellantless Propulsion does not violate Newtons Laws but is a consequence of them

Thanks to Talk Polywell for the links to several more articles on Mach Propulsion

Keith H. Wanser from the University of California has used Newton’s second law to explain propellantless acceleration, and he explicitly compares his findings to Woodward’s work on the Mach Effect.

Journal of Space Exploration - Center of mass acceleration of an isolated system of two particles with time variable masses interacting with each other via Newton’s third law internal forces: Mach effect thrust 1

Utilizing Newton’s second law of motion, it is shown that an isolated system consisting of two particles with time variable masses interacting with each other via Newton’s third law forces and no net external force can produce a DC (unidirectional) acceleration of the center of mass of the system, without any net loss or gain of mass in a cyclic process. There is no rocket type thrust in the usual sense of ejecting propellant, since it is supposed that there is no relative velocity along the direction of motion associated with the mass changes. A surprising result is that it is necessary to rederive the expression for the acceleration of the center of mass of a system when the masses are time variable, the usual expression producing zero acceleration of the center of mass under very general conditions of time variable masses and any Newton’s third law forces of interaction between them. There is no violation of momentum conservation, since the total mechanical momentum of the two particle system is not conserved, a result which is independent of the exact mechanism for producing the time variable masses. Explicit expressions are obtained for the acceleration of the center of mass and time rate of change of the total momentum for a simple model of forces and mass fluctuations with harmonic time variation. Implications of these results are discussed, including their application to propellantless Mach Effect Thruster’s (MET’s).


Ibuprofen extended lifespan an average of 15 percent in model organisms

Ibuprofen, a common over-the-counter drug used to relieve pain and fever, could hold the keys to a longer healthier life, according to a study by researchers at the Buck Institute for Research on Aging. Publishing in PLoS Genetics on December 18th, scientists showed that regular doses of ibuprofen extended the lifespan of yeast, worms and fruit flies.

“There is a lot to be excited about,” said Brian Kennedy, PhD, CEO of the Buck Institute, who said treatments, given at doses comparable to those used in humans, extended lifespan an average of 15 percent in the model organisms. “Not only did all the species live longer, but the treated flies and worms appeared more healthy,” he said. “The research shows that ibuprofen impacts a process not yet implicated in aging, giving us a new way to study and understand the aging process.” But most importantly, Kennedy said the study opens the door for a new exploration of so-called “anti-aging medicines.” “Ibuprofen is a relatively safe drug, found in most people’s medicine cabinets,” he said. “There is every reason to believe there are other existing treatments that can impact healthspan and we need to be studying them.”


Ibuprofen inhibits tryptophan import, reduces intracellular tryptophan levels and does not extend RLS in the absence of tryptophan permeases.

PLOS Genetics - Enhanced Longevity by Ibuprofen, Conserved in Multiple Species, Occurs in Yeast through Inhibition of Tryptophan Import

Around 100 part time engineers are using crowd powered incubator to develop Hyperloop

A new firm, Hyperloop Transportation Technologies, is developing plans to makes the tubes a reality - and it has recruited experts from around the world.

The crowdsourced firm has around 100 engineers on the projects, and nearly all of them have day jobs at companies like Boeing, NASA, Yahoo!, Airbus, SpaceX, and Salesforce.

The developers estimate an up-and-running Hyperloop can built in just 10 years.

They are using Jumpstartfund to incubate the company and publish a new crowdstorm document. JumpStartFund is a crowd-powered incubator that allows entrepreneurs to build communities of experienced professionals around their projects. Both an equity and rewards-based crowd platform, JumpStartFund helps startup companies and a wide variety of projects. Using the disruptive power of the crowd to vote, comment and contribute on ideas in development, the platform is designed to help create companies that might not have been. Founding members have been part of the Girvan Institute of Technology, a non-profit, public benefit corporation chartered to facilitate the transfer, development and commercialization of technologies, and to foster the growth of early-stage high-tech companies. JumpStartFund's primary mission is to help both entrepreneurs and investors leverage the power of the Internet to make it easier for companies to succeed.



Hyperloop Transportation Technologies is a company formed to design and eventually build the fanciful transportation system envisioned by Tesla and SpaceX CEO Elon Musk HTT/Jumpstartfund

Ahlborn doesn't expect to have the technical feasibility study finished until mid-2015, but he decided to show off what his team has done so far to coincide with the midterm break of the design group at UCLA. So far, the team has made progress in three main areas: the capsules, the stations, and the route.

Chinese fast reactor completes full-power test run

China's experimental fast neutron reactor has been successfully operated at full capacity for the first time, China National Nuclear Corporation (CNNC) announced.

The sodium-cooled, pool-type fast reactor was constructed with Russian assistance at the China Institute of Atomic Energy (CIEA), near Beijing, which undertakes fundamental research on nuclear science and technology. The reactor has a thermal capacity of 65 MW and can produce 20 MW in electrical power. The CEFR was built by Russia's OKBM Afrikantov in collaboration with OKB Gidropress, NIKIET and Kurchatov Institute.



December 18, 2014

Crossbar could commercialize ultradense 3D resistive RAM before HP memristors

Crossbar has developed a simple and easily manufactured RRAM-based memory technology that can scale up to 1 terabyte (TB) on a chip the size of a postage stamp. Its simple structure allows 3D stacking for multiple terabytes on a chip. Manufactured with standard CMOS processes, the simplicity of Crossbar’s RRAM technology makes it possible to easily stack non-volatile memory on top of microcontroller and other logic on FPGAs and highly integrated SOCs at advanced nodes.

With 20X higher performance and 20X lower power than NAND, and 10x the endurance at half the die size, Crossbar has shattered traditional technology barriers for NOR (code), NAND (data) and embedded memory applications and will enable a new wave of electronics innovation for consumer, enterprise, mobile, industrial and connected device applications.

Demonstrated at IEDM, Crossbar’s selector solves the sneak path problem by achieving the highest reported selectivity of 10^10, as well as an extremely sharp turn-on slope of less than 5mV/dec, fast turn-on and recovery (less than 50 nanosecond), an endurance greater than 100M cycles, and a processing temperature less than 300°C, all ensuring commercial viability. The company was able to achieve this by developing a patent-protected special architecture in the Crossbar RRAM cells, putting them into a low-voltage state before certain thresholds, enabling a single transistor to drive over 2,000 memory cells with very low power.


Objective Analysis Jim Handy thinks 2023 as the year that this, or some competing technology, will displace flash or DRAM. Entrenched technologies will be with us for some time. Until then, this and all the other technologies vying to replace DRAM and flash will be relegated to niches

This is serious technology looking for a semi-conductor foundry partner to commit to manufacture. If Handy is right then we might see niche product emerging in the next 18 - 24 months. It will have to compete with HP's Memristor and Micron's PCM with HGST demoing a PCIe card PCM concept using Micron chips recently.

Gene therapy boosts mice survival from heart attacks by 17%

The enzyme telomerase repairs cell damage produced by aging, and has been used successfully in therapies to lengthen the life of mice. Now it has been observed that it could also be used to cure illnesses related to the aging process. Researchers at the Spanish National Cancer Research Center (CNIO) have for the first time treated myocardial infarction with telomerase by designing a very innovative strategy: a gene therapy that reactivates the telomerase gene only in the heart of adult mice, thus increasing survival rates in those animals by 17 % following a heart attack.

"We have discovered that following a myocardial infarction, hearts that express telomerase show less heart dilatation, better ventricular function and smaller scars from the heart attack; these cardiac events are associated with an increased survival of 17 % compared to control animals," they say.

Furthermore, everything points to cardiomyocytes—the cells responsible for heart beating—being regenerated in those hearts with telomerase, a long searched-for goal in post-heart-attack therapy. The regeneration of heart muscle would counter the formation of scars as a consequence of the heart attack, a tough tissue that hinders cardiac function and increases the likelihood of heart failure.

Nature Communications - Telomerase expression confers cardioprotection in the adult mouse heart after acute myocardial infarction

America vs Russia is similar the mismatch of Russia vs Ukraine

Russia took over Crimea in March, 2014 without firing a shot.

Russia had used a portion of its military to dominate eastern Ukraine.

Ukraine had a GDP in 2013 of 177 billion.
Russia had a GDP in 2013 of about 2.1 trillion (Russia was about ten times bigger than Ukraine, Russia is now half as big as it was on a currency basis)
The USA had a GDP in 2013 of 16.8 trillion. (the USA was eight times bigger than Russia, the USA can gets european allies, Saudi Arabia and others to help. the USA has strong influence over economies that more than triple the size of US GDP)

The United States has been applying economic sanctions to Russia and the United States has increased its crude oil and natural gas production which has been a critical part of lowering energy prices. Lower energy prices and economic sanctions are wrecking Russia's economy without a shot being fired by the USA.

It shows that the United States is still very powerful if they have an opponent with an economy to crush. Only those like Iran and North Korea or non-state actors who are willing to get by without a real economy can defy the United States. Yes, Russia has an equal number of nuclear bombs but this only matters if the level of conflict is nuclear.

Colbert Smaug interview and an audio describing his process





Colbert describes his process in an audio interview



Thermoelectrics trying to hit multi-billion dollar markets in cooling and waste heat recovery

Material and manufacturing cost considerations for thermoelectrics are driving commercialization attempts more than just figures of merit (ZT)

Silicide materials cost 100 times less and some can still get a ZT of over 1. Previously it was believed that major commercialization would not happen until ZTs were reached a 3.

Interest in thermoelectrics for waste-heat recovery and localized cooling has flourished in recent years, but questions about cost and scalability remain unanswered. This work investigates the fabrication costs and coupled thermal and electrical transport factors that govern device efficiency and commercial feasibility of the most promising thermoelectric materials. For 30 bulk and thin film thermoelectric mate rials, we quantify the tradeoff between efficiency and cost considering electrical and thermal transport at the system level, raw material prices, system component costs, and estimated manufacturing costs. This work neglects the cost of heat, as appropriate for most waste-heat recovery applications, and applies a power generation cost metric in $/W and a cooling operating cost metric in $/kWh. The results indicate material costs are too high for typical thermoelectric power generation applications at mean temperatures below 135 C. Above 275 C, many bulk thermoelectric materials can achieve costs below $1/W. The major barrier to economical thermoelectric power generation at these higher temperatures results from system costs for heat exchangers and ceramic plates. For cooling applications, we find that several thermoelectric materials can be cost competitive and commercially promising.

Novel nanowire and superlattice materials have the potential to have a low $/W value if improvements in ZT are made above what is reported, but with the currently reported values they are not competitive in the near-term due to the large costs associated with microfabrication/ MBE manufacturing techniques.


Operating costs of a thermoelectric cooler for various materials. Colors represent material class; shapes represent material structure resulting from different manufacturing techniques. The materials are organized from left to right in order of increasing ZT m . The error bars represent the variability in electricity price with the average at 9.83 cents/kWh e . The lower bound is for industrial applications with an electricity cost of 6.77 cents/kWhe , and the upper bound is for residential applications with an electricity cost of 11.54 cents/kWh e . In this analysis F ¼ 1 and the heat exchanger costs are neglected. In the ideal TE, the material is completely free and ZT m ¼1 ; this is equivalent to a Carnot refrigerator operating with only the cost of electricity being signi fi cant, giving 0.24 – 0.41 cents/kWh th . (For interpretation of the references to color in this figure caption, the reader is referred to the web version of this paper.


XKCD graphic of rockets and payloads

Spacex launch delayed to January 6th, 2015 or later because of technical issue

SpaceX is delaying the planned launch on Friday of an unmanned Falcon 9 rocket, which will carry a cargo ship to the International Space Station for NASA, to early January, officials said on Thursday. Liftoff from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station in Florida had been planned for 1:22 p.m. EST, but an undisclosed technical issue with the rocket prompted SpaceX, as the company is known, to postpone the flight until Jan 6.

"The data suggests we could push forward without a second attempt, but out of an abundance of caution, we are opting to execute a second static fire test prior to launch." SpaceX, founded and run by technology entrepreneur Elon Musk, is one of two companies hired by NASA to fly cargo to the space station following NASA's retirement of its space shuttle fleet in 2011.

The launch is of high interest because it could be the first successful landing of a rocket stage which would enable rocket reuse.



Sony Surrender Monkeys of Cyberwar

Sony Pictures Entertainment announced Wednesday that it will pull the planned Dec. 25 theatrical release of “The Interview,” an action-comedy that stars Seth Rogen and James Franco as madcap would-be assassins of North Korean leader Kim Jong Un.

Sony will lose about $100 million to pull the movie. There was $42 million in production costs and more money for advertising.

There has been speculation that Sony has insurance which could be used to recover costs in the event of a total loss.

However, a lasting problem for Sony will be that many movie stars, directors and others in Hollywood will not trust Sony and the executives who were involved in this decision in future deals and projects. Everyone in Hollywood knows who the major people are.



China's GDP adjusted 3% higher and another 10% adjustment expected within 3 months

December 17, 2014

Details of the Technical Challenges for Reusing Rockets

During their next flight, SpaceX will attempt the precision landing of a Falcon 9 first stage for the first time, on a custom-built ocean platform known as the autonomous spaceport drone ship. While SpaceX has already demonstrated two successful soft water landings, executing a precision landing on an unanchored ocean platform is significantly more challenging.

The odds of success are not great—perhaps 50% at best. However this test represents the first in a series of similar tests that will ultimately deliver a fully reusable Falcon 9 first stage.

Returning anything from space is a challenge, but returning a Falcon 9 first stage for a precision landing presents a number of additional hurdles. At 14 stories tall and traveling upwards of 1300 m/s (nearly 1 mi/s), stabilizing the Falcon 9 first stage for reentry is like trying to balance a rubber broomstick on your hand in the middle of a wind storm.





Demographics in Israel and Palestine Territories

In 2013, Israel's jewish population has passed the 6 million mark for the first time.

In 2014, the population of Israel in 2014 is approximately 8.2 million, about the same size as New York City, with 75 percent of the population being Jewish Israelis. The Israeli population is growing at about 1.8 percent a year. The median age of the Israeli population is 30 years old, which is about 15 years younger than the average ages in Germany, Italy and Japan. Israel’s fertility rate is about 3 children for every woman, again well above the average for most developed countries.

The population of Palestinians in the State of Palestine in 2014 is about 4.4 million, with 1.7 million in the Gaza Strip and 2.7 million in the West Bank. According to the UN Relief and Works Agency, which is responsible for the care of Palestinian refugees, more than 1.5 million Palestinian refugees are living in camps in countries in the region. The number of Palestinian refugees in neighboring countries but living outside refugee camps is estimated at approximately 4 million.

The numbers of Palestinians in Gaza and the West Bank cannot vote in Israel and will not be able to unless there was a one state solution. A One state solution will not happen.



December 16, 2014

Quantum Secure Authentication could prevent forged credit cards and IDs

A team of scientists from the Netherlands is proposing a security system for credit cards and passports that would leverage the power of quantum physics. Dubbed quantum-secure authentication (QSA), the technology uses a strip of nanoparticles on the card that would be virtually impossible to hack. The same tech could be used for ID cards, passports and other cards that might have embedded data strips to prevent forgeries.

With the quantum security system, the credit card’s nanoparticle strip would be zapped with a laser in such a way as to create a unique pattern that’s impossible to crack. That’s because the system harnesses the qualities of light in the quantum state, in which photons can exist in multiple places at the same time. The event that created the pattern could never be duplicated or observed.

The process works by transmitting a small, specific number of photons onto a specially prepared surface on a credit card and then observing the tell-tale pattern they make. Since -- in the quantum world -- a single photon can exist in multiple locations, it becomes possible to create a complex pattern with a few photons, or even just one.

Due to the quantum properties of light, any attempt by a hacker to observe the Q and A exchange would, as physicists say, collapse the quantum nature of the light and destroy the information being transmitted. This makes Quantum-Secure Authentication unbreakable regardless of any future developments in technology.



Optics Infobase - Quantum-secure authentication of a physical unclonable key

Nominal per capita income higher in China than in Russia because of Ruble devaluation

China change in the GDP accounting methodology will take effect next month. China will count previously underestimated activity, and converging toward international best practice: President Xi is locking China into greater statistical transparency – by choice – with implications for how the $10 trillion economy operates. Rhodium Group (RG) re-estimated China’s 2008 nominal GDP – the most recent year which available data permit us to dissect properly, to have been 13 – 16% bigger than official figures previously showed. Beijing will be using something similar to the revised methods Rhodium Group applied to 2008 for better gauging 2013 and 2014 and years to come: extrapolating from our experience therefore, China – and hence the world economy – is likely to be seen as perhaps $1 trillion bigger a month from now than expected today.

Combining RG better assessment of 2008 and an understanding of the methodological changes we expect Beijing to make for 2013 GDP, we are in a position to offer a perspective on the soon-to-be-released results and their credibility. If the need for upward restatement we identified for 2008 holds constant for 2013, NBS’s plan to upgrade methodology should increase how large we believed China to be that year by perhaps 14.5%; but it is likely that NBS will argue it had already partially closed that gap after 2008, and therefore an upward revision of 5-10% is more likely. A 10% augmentation of the current official 2013 figure means $918 billion in new-found money – or upward revision – for last year. Projections of the 2014 full year result would be increased accordingly.

By the end of December 2014, the NBS will likely unveil its 2013 revisions. By about January 20th, 2015, they are scheduled to release a first reading for 2014 GDP. As the property and infrastructure sectors are weighing down the economy, Beijing is expected to announce a 2014 growth result that misses its stated 7.5% goal, and analysts are watching for signs of a lower than 7.5% target for 2015.

The Russian Ruble has fallen to half its value. This changes the nominal or exchange rate calculated per capita income. China passes Russia in per capita income. China GDP is being revised upwards. Russia will fall to about 15th in overall nominal GDP ranking. Canada will move back into the top 10 in GDP.



Israeli military still outclasses Iran and others in the Middle East

There was a holistic assessment of the strength of militaries in the Middle East.

The ranking is based on a holistic assessment of the militaries' operational capabilities and hardware, based on our research and on interviews with Patrick Megahan, an expert from the Foundation of Defense of Democracies' Military Edge project, and Chris Harmer, senior naval analyst at the Institute for the Study of War.

Some countries with large yet incapable militaries rank low on the list; some smaller and technologically advanced militaries from stable states rank fairly high.

1. Israel
2. Turkey
3. Saudi Arabia
4. UAE
5. Iran

sraeli F-15 fighter jets are refueled by a Boeing 707 during an air show over the Negev desert, near the southern Israeli city of Beersheva, on June 28, 2012. Israel Air Force leaders plan a major revamp in how the service operates. (Agence France-Presse)

LEGOs based device to measure mass with Planck's constant and Smartphone to measure DNA

1. Arxiv - A LEGO Watt Balance: An apparatus to demonstrate the definition of mass based on the new SI

National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) researchers have designed and built a watt balance based on LEGO blocks. Planck's constant describes the relationship between the energy and frequency of an electromagnetic wave. One kind of device that can be used to measure mass based on Planck's constant or taken the other way, to find a value for Planck's constant based on a known mass, is called a watt balance. It does its work by balancing the force exerted by gravity with the force of current in a coil—the mass of an object can be calculated by comparing the mechanical power to the electrical power in the device.

Scientists at NIST and other places have built elaborate and expensive watt balances, but in this new effort, they wanted to find a way to create one that anyone could build, and they found a way to do so by basing it on LEGO blocks—they actually built three, one of which they chose to outline in detail, describing not only how it works, but the parts used so that other's could build one too. Their design, they say would require a would-be constructor to lay down just $634 for all the parts, which include 2 sub- milliwatt lasers, photodiode, controllers, etc. They note that some industrious sorts would likely be able to reduce costs using other less expensive parts they source themselves.


CAD model of the LEGO watt balance. The balance pivots about the T-block at the center. Two PVC endcaps with copper windings hang from universal joints off either side of the balance beam. Coil A is on the left and Coil B is on the right. A 10 gram mass sits on the Coil A mass pan and each coil is concentric to its own magnet system. Two lasers are used to calibrate and measure the linear velocity of each coil. Credit: arXiv:1412.1699 [physics.ins-det]

Carnival of Space 384

The Carnival of Space 384 is up at The Venus Transit blog

Universe Today - A Universe of 10 Dimensions


Superstring theory posits that the universe exists in 10 dimensions at once. Image Credit: National Institute of Technology Tiruchirappalli.

Russian Ruble exchange rate halved against US dollar in last 6 months

December 15, 2014

Fibonacci Anyons could enable Topological quantum computing

Topological quantum computing (TQC) is a newer type of quantum computing that uses "braids" of particle tracks, rather than actual particles such as ions and electrons, as the qubits to implement computations. Using braids has one important advantage: it makes TQCs practically immune to the small perturbations in the environment that cause decoherence in particle-based qubits and often lead to high error rates. anyons tunneling in a double-layer system can transition to an exotic non-Abelian state that contains "Fibonacci" anyons that are powerful enough for universal TQC.


Physical Review Letters - Fibonacci Anyons From Abelian Bilayer Quantum Hall States

ABSTRACT
The possibility of realizing non-Abelian statistics and utilizing it for topological quantum computation (TQC) has generated widespread interest. However, the non-Abelian statistics that can be realized in most accessible proposals is not powerful enough for universal TQC. In this Letter, we consider a simple bilayer fractional quantum Hall system with the 1/3 Laughlin state in each layer. We show that interlayer tunneling can drive a transition to an exotic non-Abelian state that contains the famous “Fibonacci” anyon, whose non-Abelian statistics is powerful enough for universal TQC. Our analysis rests on startling agreements from a variety of distinct methods, including thin torus limits, effective field theories, and coupled wire constructions. We provide evidence that the transition can be continuous, at which point the charge gap remains open while the neutral gap closes. This raises the question of whether these exotic phases may have already been realized at ν=2/3 in bilayers, as past experiments may not have definitively ruled them out.

China's November YTD electrical consumption was 5012 TWh

China's National Energy Board issued November total electricity consumption.
November, the total electricity consumption 463.2 billion kwh, an increase of 3.3%.

January to November, the national total electricity consumption cumulative 5.0116 trillion kwh, an increase of 3.7%. Sub-industries, the first industrial power 92.5 billion kwh, an increase of 0.4%; second industrial power 3.6744 trillion kwh, an increase of 3.8%; the tertiary industry electricity consumption 607.1 billion kwh, an increase of 6.1 %; urban and rural residential electricity consumption 637.6 billion kwh, an increase of 2.0%.

January to November, the national power generation equipment cumulative average utilization hours for 3906 hours, down 222 hours. Among them, the average utilization hours of hydropower equipment for 3394 hours, an increase of 300 hours; thermal power equipment, the average utilization hours of 4272 hours, down 262 hours.

3D Printed Quantum Dot Light-Emitting Diodes

As part of a project demonstrating new 3-D printing techniques, Princeton researchers have embedded tiny light-emitting diodes into a standard contact lens, allowing the device to project beams of colored light.

Michael McAlpine, the lead researcher, cautioned that the lens is not designed for actual use — for one, it requires an external power supply. Instead, he said the team created the device to demonstrate the ability to "3-D print" electronics into complex shapes and materials.


Michael McAlpine, an assistant professor of mechanical and aerospace engineering at Princeton, is leading a research team that uses 3-D printing to create complex electronics devices such as this light-emitting diode, shown here printed on curved glass. (Photos by Frank Wojciechowski)

NanoLetters - 3D Printed Quantum Dot Light-Emitting Diodes

Self-arranging molecules could form the basis for efficient optoelectronic memory devices

A way to use weak molecular bonding interactions to create well-ordered and stable metal–organic monolayers with optoelectronic properties has been found by researchers from the RIKEN Surface and Interface Science Laboratory. The development could form the basis for the scalable fabrication of molecular optoelectronic devices.

A variety of emerging technologies are being investigated as potential replacements or enhancements of the electrical-charge-based electronics that lie at the heart of all electronic devices. Utilizing interactions between light and charge—referred to as optoelectronics—is of particular interest to researchers and engineers. Organic molecules that change state reversibly in response to pulses of light could, for example, be used to build versatile optoelectronic memory devices with ultrahigh storage capacities.


Scanning tunneling microscopy image (background) of the ordered array of diarylethene derivative molecules. A schematic of the molecular structure is shown in the foreground.

Angewandte Chemie International Edition - Supramolecular Assembly through Interactions between Molecular Dipoles and Alkali Metal Ions

China will pass the nominal GDP of the EU in 2016 and the USA in 2019

The likely near term situation for when China will pass the exchange rate adjusted GDP for the USA and the collective GDP of Europe is becoming clearer based upon statistical method changes and more clearly apparent currency and GDP projections for the five years.


December 16, 2014, China will be adjusting its GDP based upon accounting changes and a new business census. This should boost China's (including Hong Kong and Macau) GDP to about 13.7 trillion in 2015.

Deutsche bank is forecasting the Euro to greatly weaken against the US dollar and the Chinese yuan into 2017.
2014 1.24 US dollars to 1 Euro
2015 1.15 US dollars to 1 Euro
2016 1.05 US dollars to 1 Euro
2017 0.95 US dollars to 1 Euro

Others have similar currency forecasts.

The European Union had (28 countries) a GDP of 13.07 trillion Euros at the end of 2013.

The IMF is expecting Europe GDP growth to be about 1.5% or less.

The Euro currency weakening by about 10% per year will enable China to pass Europe sooner.

Stanford researchers are building layers of logic and memory into skyscraper chips

Skyscraper chip researchers' leveraged three breakthroughs.

1. a new technology for creating transistors, those tiny gates that switch electricity on and off to create digital zeroes and ones.

2. a new type of computer memory that lends itself to multistory fabrication.

3. a technique to build these new logic and memory technologies into high-rise structures in a radically different way than previous efforts to stack chips.

"This research is at an early stage, but our design and fabrication techniques are scalable," Mitra said. "With further development this architecture could lead to computing performance that is much, much greater than anything available today."

Wong said the prototype chip to be unveiled at IEDM shows how to put logic and memory together into three-dimensional structures that can be mass-produced.

"Paradigm shift is an overused concept, but here it is appropriate," Wong said. "With this new architecture, electronics manufacturers could put the power of a supercomputer in your hand."


This illustration represents the four-layer prototype high-rise chip built by Stanford engineers. The bottom and top layers are logic transistors. Sandwiched between them are two layers of memory. The vertical tubes are nanoscale electronic “elevators” that connect logic and memory, allowing them to work together to solve problems. (Illustration: Max Shulaker)

December 14, 2014

Star Trek Turbolifts will be reality in 2016 with multidirectional elevator

ThyssenKrupp develops the world’s first rope-free elevator system to enable the building industry face the challenges of global urbanization. MULTI is ThyssenKrupp’s latest offering in its extensive repertoire of elevator technologies, representing a landmark revolution in the elevator industry and a new and efficient transport solution for mid and high-rise buildings.

ThyssenKrupp places linear motors in elevator cabins, transforming conventional elevator transportation in vertical metro systems. MULTI elevator technology increases transport capacities and efficiency while reducing the elevator footprint and peak loads from the power supply in buildings. Several cabins in the same shaft moving vertically and horizontally will permit buildings to adopt different heights, shapes, and purposes. The first MULTI unit will be in tests by 2016.

MULTI will transform how people move inside buildings, just as the recently introduced ThyssenKrupp’s ACCEL, which also applies the same linear motor technology, is set to transform mobility between short distances in cities and airports.

In a manner similar to a metro system operation, the MULTI design can incorporate various self-propelled elevator cabins per shaft running in a loop, increasing the shaft transport capacity by up to 50% making it possible to reduce the elevator footprint in buildings by as much as 50%.

Using no cables at all, a multi-level brake system, and inductive power transfers from shaft to cabin, MULTI requires smaller shafts than conventional elevators, and can increase a building’s usable area by up to 25%, considering that, depending on the size of the building, current elevator-escalator footprints can occupy up to 40% of the building’s floor space. The overall increase in efficiency also translates into a lower requirement for escalators and additional elevator shafts, resulting in significant construction cost savings as well as a multiplication of rent revenues from increased usable space.


ThyssenKrupp’s MULTI consists of various cabs per shaft and enables vertical and horizontal movement.


Carnival of Nuclear Energy 239

1. Neutron Bytes - Nuclear Projects Come and Go in Idaho

A group of local businessmen in rural Butte County, Idaho, wants to build a 1500 MW commercial nuclear reactor at a site on private land near Howe, ID, located 10 miles west of the Idaho National Laboratory, and some 60 miles west of Idaho, Falls, ID. They are the latest in local efforts to pursue this type of effort.

A penny stock firm that allegedly took $14 million from investors, in a pump and dump stock scheme, based on claims it would build a nuclear power plant in Idaho is now in hot water with the SEC and the IRS. Civil and criminal charges have been filed by the SEC and the IRS against AEHI for stock fraud and tax evasion. A trial date on the criminal charges has been set for January.

U.S. Rep. Mike Simpson, who sits on the House Appropriations Committee, was able to insure that the omnibus appropriations bill that passed the House this week rejects cuts to the Idaho National Laboratory, and increases money for nuclear energy research.

Gene Therapy progress with clinical trials, possible cures and major investment

Pfizer is establishing a gene therapy platform to study potential treatments, led by a top UK expert, and had struck a deal with privately owned U.S. biotech firm Spark Therapeutics to develop a treatment for haemophilia.

The Spark program is expected to enter early-stage clinical trials for haemophilia B in the first half of 2015. Spark will be responsible for the early Phase I/II tests, with Pfizer taking over late-stage studies, any regulatory approvals and potential commercialization.

Spark will get $20 million upfront and be eligible for additional payments based on product success worth up to $260 million.

Pfizer's research effort in gene therapy will be led by Michael Linden, a professor from King’s College London and director of the University College London Gene Therapy Consortium. Linden is joining Pfizer on a two-year secondment.

Economic reformer Japanese PM Abe has a two thirds supermajority will mean reactors restarts and more reform

Japan's governing parties have won a two-thirds majority in the Lower House election.

The Liberal Democratic Party led by Prime Minister Shinzo Abe and its coalition partner, Komeito, garnered 326 seats, one more than a two-thirds majority, in the 475-seat Lower House.

A two-thirds majority in the chamber will allow the re-enactment of bills rejected by the Upper House. A two-thirds majority in the Lower House also makes it possible to propose amending the Constitution.

Prime Minister Abe told NHK that he will give top priority to the economy and pursue economic diplomacy to heighten Japan's status. He said he will enact legislation regarding security in the next Diet session to protect the people's lives.

Abe is expected early next year to give final approval to the restart of two nuclear reactors. Abe will likely move to restart two dozen of the 48 operable nuclear reactors in Japan.

Accounting revisions and a business census will boost China's GDP stats by about 15% for 2013-2015

China’s statistics bureau is predicted to announce results of its third national economic census this month after a year’s worth of interviews and data collection from millions of businesses. The past two, published in 2009 and 2005, prompted additions to gross domestic product estimates as the value of services was revised higher.

This time around, 2013 GDP will be revised up by 1 to 3 percent -- as much as about $275 billion -- and 2014 GDP growth will be bolstered by 0.1 to 0.3 percentage point, according to the median forecast of 12 economists surveyed by Bloomberg News.

Liu expects the revisions could add 0.1 to 0.3 percentage point to 2014 GDP growth and has increased his estimate from 7.2 percent to 7.5 percent on accelerated budget spending, stabilization in property and seasonal data effects.

The national economic census is conducted about every five years to gather information on the manufacturing and services industries. Over 10 million businesses and about 60 million individual enterprises were visited early this year by about 3 million census takers, according to the official Xinhua News Agency.

The nationwide review may help offset underrepresentation of China’s rapidly-expanding services industry. The past two censuses led to a 16.8 percent revision to 2004 GDP size and a 4.4 percent increase in 2008.

I have adjusted the 2015 GDP forecast from the Economist. Hong Kong and Macau add about $370 billion to China's GDP total would put 13.74 trillion China and at 74.5% of the US economy. 2% annual strengthening in currency and 4% annual differential in GDP growth over the USA would mean China would pass the USA in overall nominal economy in 2020. Also, 2019 would have another China business census adjustment. Odds would indicate that 2019 would be when China (including Hong Kong and Macua) would pass the USA because of the 2019 business census. Hong Kong and Macau are part of China but are separated in many statistical reports.



Spacex close to certification for military launches

Spacex is close to winning the certification it needs to begin launching satellites for the U.S. military, according to an Air Force official. If Elon Musk’s Space Exploration Technologies, known as SpaceX, receives the approval by Dec. 31 it will qualify to be awarded a contract valued at as much as $200 million in competition with United Launch Alliance LLC, the joint venture of Lockheed Martin Corp. (LMT) and Boeing Co. (BA) that has been the military’s sole launch provider.

“They will eventually be certified,” Air Force Lieutenant General Ellen Pawlikowski, the service’s top military acquisition officer, said of SpaceX in an interview, although she declined to predict whether approval will come in time for the contract this month to launch a payload for the National Reconnaissance Office. “I’m pretty optimistic.”

The Air Force has set aside seven launches through 2017, including the one this month, Captain Chris Hoyler, a spokesman for the service, said in an e-mail. House and Senate negotiators added $125 million for an additional competitive launch in the the $554.2 billion defense spending bill for the current fiscal year that awaits final passage in Congress.

Spacex scheduled to launch December 19

The Spacex Falcon 9 rocket launch has been delayed three days and is now scheduled to launch from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station on Dec. 19, at 1:20 pm.

SpaceX’s Falcon 9 rocket is carrying the Dragon capsule to deliver cargo to the International Space Station and will arrive at the ISS on dec. 21.

This is the fifth resupply mission by SpaceX for NASA, bringing food and supplies, including new science experiments and technology research, to the crew aboard the ISS.

The payload includes the Cloud-Aerosol Transport System, or CATS, a laser instrument designed to measure clouds and the location and distribution of pollution, dust, smoke and other particles in the atmosphere.

The biggest potential development with this launch is a possible successful landing of the first stage onto a barge to enable reuse of the first stage. It is possible that the tug named "DENISE A BOUCHARD", registered with IMO number N/A and MMSI 367611060 is what will be pushing the barge that will be used for the Spacex landing [information from Keith Pickering]



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