February 14, 2015

Getting to a Quadrillion Dollar World with a closer look at GDP growth, education and demographics

Last week, Nextbigfuture described a future where China helps build out the infrastructure that the rest of the developing world needs over the next few decades. The shortfall of infrastructure is lowering the potential GDP growth by 2-3% in many countries. An extra 2% GDP growth globally would accelerate the arrival of a world with a quadrillion dollar economy measured in todays dollars.

China is leveraging its $4 trillion in reserves to provide low interest financing for high speed rail, export of Chinese nuclear reactors, factories and property development.

China is offering to fill the worlds infrastructure gap. This will enable all of the developing world to follow the China economic development plan. In a few decades, they will have no shortfall in transportation, industry, modern buildings, energy plants, energy grid and other infrastructure needs. China will also help them finance it.

There are various long term projections of the world GDP in 2035. BP has a projection using 2012 dollars that has world GDP at $210 trillion in 2035. This is without any bump from a larger buildout of infrastructure.

GE has a vision of an industrial internet which they believe could boost world economic growth by 10-15 trillion by 2035.

Superconducting engines and advanced additive manufacturing could increase the energy efficiency of airplanes by over 50%.

Complete deployment of multi-gigabit internet to everyone in the world via satelite, high altitude balloons and drones could boost world GDP by $22 trillion or more by 2030.

$210 trillion in 2035 not factoring in China boosting world infrastructure or Google-Spacex world internet or GE industrial internet

Many T-50 Fighter Variants with Continuing Upgrades planned

Sukhoi — is Russia’s major aircraft holding company, and employs more than 26,000 people. Sukhoi is placed 3rd in the world in terms of the numbers of modern fighters produced.

The T-50 (PAK-FA) is intended to be the successor to the MiG-29 and Su-27 in the Russian Air Force and serve as the basis for the Fifth Generation Fighter Aircraft (FGFA) being co-developed by Sukhoi and Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL) for the Indian Air Force. The T-50 prototype first flew on 29 January 2010 and production aircraft is slated for delivery to the Russian Air Force starting in 2016.

The PAK-FA appears to be optimized for the air-superiority role like the F-22 more so than the multirole, strike-optimized F-35. Like the Raptor, the PAK-FA is being designed to fly high and fast to impart the maximum amount of launch energy to its arsenal of long-range air-to-air missiles—which would greatly increase the range of those missiles.

Variants of the T-50 and the timeline

Defending Russia has the timeline and plans for Su-50 fighter development.

The discoverer of Rapamycin treated himself with Rapamycin to delay his own death from cancer

In 1999, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved rapamycin as a drug for transplant patients. Sehgal died a few years after the FDA approval, too soon to see his brainchild save the lives of thousands of transplant patients and go on to make Wyeth hundreds of millions of dollars.

Nextbigfuture has dozens of articles about Rapamycin going back many years.

Suren Sehgal had been studying the bacteria that would eventually produce rapamycin since 1972. He purified Streptomyces hygroscopicus and the antifungal compound it produced and named it rapamycin, after Easter Island’s native name, Rapa Nui.

Novartis, the $260 billion Swiss pharmaceutical giant, has begun taking the first steps to position a version of rapamycin as the first true anti-aging drug.

Rapamycin appears to delay “age-related decline in multiple different organ systems, which is something we would expect if we were fundamentally slowing the aging process.”

The promise of rapamycin, he and others contend, is to treat aging as a contributing factor to the chronic diseases that kill people later in life, the way we now lower cholesterol to prevent heart disease. “I view it as the ultimate preventive medicine,” says Kaeberlein, who’s leading a rapamycin study on dogs.

Discover of Rapamycin delayed his own death from cancer by three years and it could have been more if he did not stop taking it

Sehgal was diagnosed with cancer in 1998, his son Ajai says, Sehgal began taking rapamycin, too—despite the drug not having been approved for anything yet. He had a hunch that it might help slow the spread of his cancer, which had metastasized to his liver and other organs. His doctors gave him two years to live, but he survived for much longer, as the tumors appeared to go dormant. The only side effect he suffered from was canker sores, a relatively small price to pay.

But in 2003, after five years, Sehgal, age 70, decided to stop taking the drug. Otherwise, he told his wife, he’d never know whether it was really holding back his cancer. The tumors came back quickly, and he died within months, says Ajai. “On his deathbed, he said to me, ‘The stupidest thing I’ve ever done is stop taking the drug.’ ”

Life extension with Rapamycin in mice

India developing Advanced Medium Combat Aircraft with first flight about 2018

The HAL Advanced Medium Combat Aircraft (AMCA) is a single-seat, twin-engine fifth-generation stealth multirole fighter being developed by India. It will complement the HAL Tejas, the Sukhoi/HAL FGFA, the Sukhoi Su-30MKI and the Dassault Rafale. Unofficial design work on the AMCA has been started. A naval version is confirmed, as the Indian Navy also contributed to funding.

Military R and D establishment DRDO along with the special-purpose Aeronautical Development Agency is working on the 25-tonne Advanced Medium Combat Aircraft to beef up the Air Force.

Their original plan was to buy the engine off the shelf to quicken the development time but there was no engine in the 110-kilo Newton (kN) category that they wanted. It was decided to partner an engine manufacturer who can jointly upgrade available 90-kN engine – most of it in the country - to power the AMCA.

India wants to co-develop the engine and General Electric of US and Klimo of Russia are in discussions as possible partners.

India has about $2 billion budgeted for development.

First flight might be 2018 but the new engine would not be ready until about 2021.

February 13, 2015

Russia's planning on upgraded nuclear submarines

Russia is apparently planning an enlarged naval fleet.

12 Project 955 "Borei" submaines. Eight 955s have been ordered under the SAP 2020. Four more are planned after 2020.

The Borei has a compact and integrated hydrodynamically efficient hull for reduced broadband noise and the first ever use of pump-jet propulsion on a Russian nuclear submarine. The Borei submarines are approximately 170 metres (560 ft) long. They have a maximum submerged speed of at least 46 kilometres per hour (25 kn; 29 mph). They are equipped with a floating rescue chamber designed to fit in the whole crew. Smaller than the Typhoon-class, the Boreis were initially slated to carry 12 missiles but are able to carry 4 more due to the decrease in mass of the 36-ton Bulava SLBM (a modified version of the Topol-M ICBM) over the originally proposed R-39UTTH Bark. Cost is some 23 bln RUR ($890 million USD), in comparison the cost of an Ohio-class SSBN was around 2 billion USD per boat (1997 prices).

A fifth generation successor to the 955 submarine is already in development It will carry cruise missiles and ballastic missiles.

Russia developing a new aircraft carrier that would be bigger than the US Nimitz class

Scientists Krylovskogo State University in St. Petersburg are testing a new Russian aircraft carrier design. The concept is being tested in the laboratory. If the experiments are successful, scientists will create the layout in 1: 1 scale metal scale model. It will be an aircraft carrier which can accommodate up to 100 aircraft. The US Nimitz class aircraft carriers hold 90 aircraft.

Optimization reduces the resistance of the vessel hull 20%. The aircraft carrier will be equipped with power plants and modern avionics and missile weapons. The structure of the deck aircraft will allow take off even in the face of stormy weather.

China's Xinhua had reported that Russia has worked out a long-term military development program that envisages construction of an aircraft carrier in the 2030s.

"This will be a versatile warship equipped with manned and unmanned aircraft systems and also robotic systems capable of operating in all possible environments, including outer space. Such a vessel may appear in the 2030s," Interfax news agency quoted him as saying.

February 12, 2015

Propellant-less Photonic Laser Thruster achieved 1 millinewtons in the lab

Masahiro Ono, NASA JPL - Comet Hitchhiker: Harvesting Kinetic Energy from Small Bodies to Enable Fast and Low-Cost Deep Space Exploration in the first half of a video below.

Nextbigfuture focused on the second half with the talk by Young Bae.
Young Bae, Y.K. Bae Corporation - Propellant-less Spacecraft Formation-Flying and Maneuvering with Photonic Laser Thrusters

Young Bae used a diamond thin disk laser and increased the power to achieve 1.03 millinewtons of force with a laser photonic thruster.

It bounces lasers between mirrors. The bouncing amplification was 100-200 times.
He believes they can get bouncing amplification to 1000 times.
The mirrors can handle 50 megawatts per square centimeter and they are at 500 kilowatts per square centimeter.

Japanese Regulator approves two more restarts and Russia agrees to build two nuclear reactors for Egypt

1. Two units at the Takahama nuclear power plant have moved one step closer to restarting following final approval by the Japanese regulator of changes in the reactor installations. They become the third and fourth reactors in Japan to gain such permission.

The Nuclear Regulation Authority (NRA) granted preliminary permission to Kansai to make changes to the basic design of the reactor installations of Takahama units 3 and 4 in mid-December 2014. At that time, the NRA said that the applied design and safety features of the Takahama units - both 870 MWe pressurized water reactors - were deemed to meet its new regulatory requirements, announced in July 2013.

2. Egypt and Russia have agreed to build a nuclear power plant together and officials from both countries have signed a memorandum of understanding on the proposed project.

Hybrid 3D CMOS is the next wave of imaging sensor technology

Author P. Cambou J and L. Jaffard. From Technologies to Market Status of the CMOS image sensor industry 2015 report. by Yole Development.

Hybrid 3D CMOS is the next wave of imaging sensor technology

Interesting Plausibility that Elon Musk Could Become a Trillionaire with a City on Mars by 2040

Some have called the Elon Musk comment that Tesla Motors could reach $700 billion in market valuation by 2025 with 50% per year annual revenue growth.

Achieving anywhere close to becoming a trillionaire who enables reusable rockets and some level of human colonization on Mars would put Elon Musk to the level a hero in a Robert Heinlein classic science fiction story.

Heinlein's protagonists are typically geniuses, often with perfect memory and a love for mathematics.

In June 2011, Musk was awarded the $500,000 Heinlein Prize for Advances in Space Commercialization.

Tesla is still worth $26 billion and has been around $40 billion in market valuation.

Tesla is creating a Gigafactory battery factory which would enable Tesla to produce batteries for 500,000 electric cars per year. Elon Musk has talked about making many Gigafactory battery factories.

Solar City is at $5.6 billion in valuation and has been up over $8 billion before.

Spacex has privately sold ten percent of the company with a recent ten billion valuation.

Depending upon the stock prices on any particular day, Elon Musk already has a net worth of $10 to 20 billion.

Elon Musk and his new investors (Google and Fidelity) were planning to create a lower altitude network of thousands of satellites for high speed internet service. The plan is to create a global internet service that could help fund the city on Mars. Spacex satellite network would have up to 4000 smaller mass produced satellites that would fly at about 700 kilometers for faster response and communication speeds.

Nextbigfuture has also looked at an extrapolation of what it would take to achieve Elon Musk's vision of a city on Mars with 80,000 people.

February 11, 2015

Elon Musk suggests that Tesla could reach current Apple level market cap of $700 billion in 2025

Elon Musk said Tesla’s revenue this year could grow to $6 billion, from $3.2 billion in 2014. Elon predicted the 2025 market-cap of Tesla would reach $700 billion, IF 50 percent annual revenue growth and a price-to-equity ratio for the stock of 20 is assumed.

Tesla Motors missed fourth-quarter sales targets and analysts’ profit expectations, but Chief Executive Officer Elon Musk on Wednesday said by 2025 Tesla’s growth trajectory could take its market value to $700 billion, matching that of Apple.

Spacex successfully deploys DSCVER satellite and soft lands vertically into ocean 10 meters from target

Spacex successfully launched the DSCOVR satellite and sent it into a parking orbit. The satellite was successfully deployed.

Waves were to high for the drone ship, but the first stage successfully soft landed vertically into the ocean 10 meters from its target.

Ultimately, DSCOVR will be positioned at the Sun-Earth L1 Lagrangian point, 1,500,000 kilometers (930,000 mi) from Earth, more than four times farther than the Moon. SpaceX delivered DSCOVR to a parking orbit just under 200km, and the satellite will reach its final orbit 110 days after launch.

While extreme weather prevented SpaceX from attempting to recover the first stage, data shows the first stage successfully soft landed in the Atlantic Ocean within 10 meters of its target. The vehicle was nicely vertical and the data captured during this test suggests a high probability of being able to land the stage on the drone ship in better weather.

Pentagonal graphene should be stronger than graphene

Jon Evans at Chemistry World reports that scientists in China have proposed the existence of a novel 2D allotrope of carbon made up of pentagons, which they have dubbed ‘penta-graphene’. Like graphene, penta-graphene consists of an atom-thick sheet of carbon atoms, but the atoms are arranged in a repeated pentagon pattern, potentially giving it some intriguing and useful physical properties.

In conventional graphene, the carbon atoms make a repeated hexagon pattern like chicken wire. Spherical C60 buckyballs are made up of both hexagons and pentagons, but scientists have so far only been able to synthesise a single carbon nanomaterial made exclusively of pentagons, in the form of a C20 cage. Nevertheless, this does raise the possibility of making other pentagon-based allotropes.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Science - Penta-graphene: A new carbon allotrope

NASA NIAC Spiderfab Status update on the way to making kilometer scale structures

Robert Hoyt, Tethers Unlimited - SpiderFab: Architecture for On-Orbit Construction of Kilometer-Scale Apertures

Two things are the most exciting for near term transformation of space capability
Spiderfab and Spacex reusable rockets.

Here is the Spiderfab update.

Improving and testing reliability and a lot of engineering would be needed to get to 100 kilometer structures.

Making 6U cubesat trusselator to put out 50 meter trusses and make truss of trusses from several

They are using Baxter robot to work with trusselators.

NASA NIAC - Tethers Unlimited Asteroid Wrangler

Robert Hoyt, Tethers Unlimited - WRANGLER: Capture and De-Spin of Asteroids and Space Debris • Vytas SunSpiral, NASA ARC - Super Ball Bot - Structures for Planetary Landing and Exploration (@ 33:03 into the video)

February 10, 2015

Google's Boston Dynamics shows off Robot Dog Spot in Video

Spot is a four-legged robot designed for indoor and outdoor operation. It is electrically powered and hydraulically actuated. Spot has a sensor head that helps it navigate and negotiate rough terrain. Spot weighs about 160 lbs.

US Navy 30 year ship plans include an aircraft carrier every five years

The US Navy has a 30 year shipbuilding plan and there are Department of Defense (DoD) and Navy guidance documents.

In the near-term planning period, available platforms are limited to existing ships, flight upgrades, a new amphibious platform (LX(R)), and the SSBN(X). Advanced weapons and sensors are expected to continue to drive electrical system requirements as are energy security considerations.

The mid-term planning period introduces several new platforms: DDG(X) in FY 2031, LCS(X) in FY2030, a large deck amphibious ship in FY 2024, and potentially an additional variant of DDG 51 in the FY2022-2024 timeframe. Advanced weapons and sensors with higher power demands as well as energy security will continue to be the primary electrical requirement drivers during this period. Capabilities such as arctic operations, platforms with mission modules, and low observability may play key roles.

The far-term involves additional uncertainty, but it is expected that additional directed energy weapons requiring even more power will become available as well as higherpowered sensors and rail guns of increasing size and capability. It is likely that Navy platforms will operate these systems simultaneously. The Navy will also introduce additional modular ships with modular mission payloads and electric power systems will be required to provide improved power system flexibility. Far-term power systems are anticipated to become more autonomous and simple to operate, smaller, lighter and less costly.

Three of the new Ford Aircraft carriers have been announced but the plan has been for ten Ford class carriers One every five years from 2013 would mean carriers out to 2058.

February 09, 2015

Advanced additive manufacturing could enable planes that are 50% more fuel efficient

Pratt and Whitney is exploring making airplane engines with fewer parts using additive manufacturing (aka advanced 3D printing). Those parts would need less assembly and be cheaper to make. Frank Preli, chief engineer for materials and process engineering at the company, anticipates the possibility of radical new aircraft designs “like many engines embedded in a wing for ultra-aerodynamic efficiency.

Such a design could have many benefits, says Mark Drela, a professor of aeronautics and astronautics at MIT. Distributing engines along the trailing edge of wings and in the rear of the fuselage can theoretically cut fuel consumption by 20 percent and decrease an aircraft’s weight. These benefits “add up to very large fuel burn reductions,” Drela says. Savings of 50 percent “are not inconceivable.”

Additive manufacturing techniques need to improve to allow for higher precision. Once researchers understand the fine, molecular-scale physics of how lasers and electron beams interact with powders, he says, “that will lead to the ability to put in finer and finer features, and faster and faster deposition rates.”

This is a more efficient airplane design using smaller distributed engines. They were superconducting engines. Advanced additive manufacturing could enable a similar design

Another distributed engine airplane design

Thirty year Roadmap for Navy power systems to support railguns and lasers

The US Navy has a roadmap to align electrical power system developments with warfighter needs and enable capability based budgeting. It is meant to be a living document, updated biannually, that invites innovation and guides investment by DOD, government, industry, and academia to achieve synergistic advances in naval power systems. Recommendations have been provided based on available information, engineering judgment, and projected requirements. The historic timelines for major component and large system development such as the gas turbine engine and IPS can take up to about 20 years to transition to the fleet whereas smaller subsystems such as the LHD 8 hybrid electric drive can take up to 8 years. During the same length of time, the Navy 30 year Shipbuilding Plan changes, ship programs are initiated and terminated and threats to our security change constantly. This TDR proposes multiple paths to continue providing targets in the face of uncertainty.

This is a 95 page document. Naval Power Systems Technology Development Roadmap PMS 320 by the Electric Ships Office that is directing the Future of Ships Power. Advanced sensors, railguns and lasers will need a lot more power but that power will need to be compact and light.

The Navy has jjust installed a first prototype railgun on a navy catamaran. The Navy has installed their prototype railgun on a 1500 ton military catamaran called the joint high speed vessel aka JHSV. Lance M. Bacon reports this development at the Navy Times and Sam LaGrone at UNSI. The JHSV has 600 tons of excess payload capacity, but Zumwalt Navy destroyers have 20 tons of excess payload capacity. The railgun will need to be made more compact to be installed on the destroyers. The Destroyers at 14500 tons are bigger than the JHSV. The Destroyers are already filled with other systems.

The railgun also uses 34 mega joules of power to launch a 23-pound projectile to distances greater than 100 miles at speeds topping Mach 7 (better than 5,300 mph). While Zumwalt-class destroyers will generate roughly 78 mega joules (twice the power the railgun needs), most destroyers have in reserve less than one-third of the power the railgun needs. And there are a whole bunch of limitations on what can be done inside the ship to add power generators. Developers will house power generators in con-ex boxes during the JHSV demonstration, but a permanent power solution will be needed before the railgun lands in the fleet.

The target is 2018 for installation of a combat railgun on a US Navy destroyer.

Long term trends directly leading the development of Naval Power Systems are expected to continue. In general, they are:
* Navy platforms will require more electric power, on demand, to meet the needs of ever improving mission systems.
* The power density of the electric power system will need to continue improving to meet the increasing demand in the same foot print.
* Economic realities will force the Navy to keep current platforms in service longer than originally planned
* These platforms will be looked upon to service advanced weapons and sensors due to emerging threats.

More intelligence genes found that will lead to effective embryo selection

Molecular Psychiatry - Genetic contributions to variation in general cognitive function: a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies in the CHARGE consortium

General cognitive function is substantially heritable across the human life course from adolescence to old age. We investigated the genetic contribution to variation in this important, health- and well-being-related trait in middle-aged and older adults. We conducted a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies of 31 cohorts (N=53 949) in which the participants had undertaken multiple, diverse cognitive tests. A general cognitive function phenotype was tested for, and created in each cohort by principal component analysis. We report 13 genome-wide significant single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) associations in three genomic regions, 6q16.1, 14q12 and 19q13.32.

The proportion of phenotypic variation accounted for by all genotyped common SNPs was 29% (s.e.=5%) and 28% (s.e.=7%), respectively. Using polygenic prediction analysis, ~1.2% of the variance in general cognitive function was predicted in the Generation Scotland cohort (N=5487; P=1.5 × 10−17). In hypothesis-driven tests, there was significant association between general cognitive function and four genes previously associated with Alzheimer’s disease: TOMM40, APOE, ABCG1 and MEF2C.

Stephen Hsu posted on the main genetic findings on intelligence. Stephen Hsu has written extensively on the genetic basis on intelligence and the near future of embryo selection. Stephen advises BGI the main genomics company of China.

There was a review of five years of genome-wide association studies in 2011.

February 08, 2015

US Dept of Energy Helping Canada and China to create Molten Salt Reactors

Mark Halper reports at Fortune that DOE (US Dept of Energy) plans to sign a 10-year collaboration agreement with China to help that country build at least one molten-salt nuclear reactor within the next decade. And in a smaller development, Oak Ridge publicly announced in January that it will advise Terrestrial Energy, a privately held Canadian start-up, on development of a molten-salt reactor that draws on Weinberg designs and on the reactor scheme that briefly hatched at Oak Ridge after Weinberg left.

The idea from the U.S. perspective—especially with the larger DOE collaboration with the Chinese Academy of Sciences—is to foster a reactor that could eventually gain hold in the U.S.

The Quadrillion dollar world would be a world with complete Infrastructure

China is leveraging its $4 trillion in reserves to provide low interest financing for high speed rail, export of Chinese nuclear reactors, factories and property development.

China is offering to fill the worlds infrastructure gap. This will enable all of the developing world to follow the China economic development plan. In a few decades, they will have no shortfall in transportation, industry, modern buildings, energy plants, energy grid and other infrastructure needs. China will also help them finance it.

Let us imagine about 2060-2080 where China has provided almost all countries in Africa and Asia with state of the art energy generation, energy distribution, global transportation and modern megacities with over 90% urbanization.

The world economy is at about $110 trillion in purchasing power parity (with 2011 Worldbank adjustments) in 2015 and is about $80 trillion in nominal exchange rate terms. The average per capita wealth is $15,200 on a PPP basis for each of 7.2 billion people.

Robert Fogel, nobel prize winning economist has projected China to have 123 trillion GDP in 2040 China's share of global GDP -- 40 percent -- will dwarf that of the United States (14 percent) and the European Union (5 percent) 30 years from now. So World economy Nobel Prize winning economist Robert Fogel is projecting a world economy of $307 trillion in 2040. This prediction is that the world economy will triple in 25 years. A further tripling afterwards would have a world economy of $900 trillion around 2065.

The average per capita wealth would be $100,000 on a PPP basis for each of about 10 billion people.

China is very likely to have a high speed rail network across Asia, Europe, Africa and a separate one in South America by 2040. They could have completed the connections across North America and between continents by 2065.

Elon Musk tweeted on the space elevator, electric rockets and railguns

Earth based Space elevators would be 62000 miles long. This about 2.5 times the 24,000 mile circumference of the earth.

At 200 kilometers per hour, a 30-passenger climber would be able to reach the GEO level after a 7.5 day trip. The climbing module would need to climb through Van Allen Radiation Belt for possibly days.

On February 13, 2006 the LiftPort Group announced that, earlier the same month, they had tested a mile of "space-elevator tether" made of carbon-fiber composite strings and fiberglass tape measuring 5 cm (2.0 in) wide and 1 mm (approx. 13 sheets of paper) thick, lifted with balloons. The carbon fiber was not strong enough for a real full blown earth based space elevator.

In 2007, Elevator:2010 held the 2007 Space Elevator games, which featured US$500,000 awards for each of the two competitions, (US$1,000,000 total) as well as an additional US$4,000,000 to be awarded over the next five years for space elevator related technologies. No teams won the competition, but a team from MIT entered the first 2-gram (0.07 oz), 100-percent carbon nanotube entry into the competition.

Liftport Group is working on a Lunar Space elevator to be deployed before 2020. This is technical feasible with materials available today. They have detailed plans on their approach. The issue is they can gather sufficient funding and operationally execute to deliver the plan.

Nextbigfuture covered the Space Elevator contests and has reported on various Space elevator and tether proposals. It would take a book to cover them all by collecting and updating hundreds of posts.

The Lunar Space Elevator Infrastructure is going to serve many purposes for the human race. The first and most obvious is the opening up of the Moon for tourism and colonization purposes. LSEI can be built with current materials, but it would not have a lot of throughput. The goal of the study would be to determine a method of increasing transport throughput to enable humans to go back to the Moon. LiftPort’s LSEI architecture provides consistent, safe, and high-volume lunar transportation. Each Ribbon attached to the lunar surface allows for an additional 260 kg of cargo. Built up over time, 5, 10 or 15 such Ribbons allows for human-rated heavy-cargo capacity. By building a complete, reusable, and expandable infrastructure, LSEI can send three astronauts to the lunar surface every four weeks. In addition, the LSEI expands the capabilities of the Deep Space Habitat envisioned by the Global Exploration Roadmap and endorsed by NASA. Accessing the Moon also means accessing the minerals of the Moon. The Moon’s suspected to possess a motherlode of helium3, which many (ourselves included) believe it could be used to energize nuclear fusion reactions and provide vast amounts of energy in a process which avoids the radioactive waste of nuclear fission (the process used in nuclear power on earth currently.)

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