The political decoy is an individual who has been selected because of strong physical resemblance to the person being impersonated. This resemblance can be strengthened by plastic surgery. Often, such decoys are trained to speak and behave like the "target".
Since deception is the whole purpose of employing a political decoy, there are many instances of alleged decoying which remain uncertain.
Joe R. Reeder, an undersecretary for the U.S. Army from 1993 to 1997, has gone on record with claims that a number of figures around the world have or have had decoys, including Manuel Noriega, Raoul Cédras, Enver Hoxha, Fidel Castro, George W. Bush and Osama bin Laden.
Of Noriega's alleged four decoys, Reeder said: "They were good. They practiced his gait, his manner of speech and his modus operandi – what he did during the day and night."
Information on these instances of decoying is hard to come by. And falsely accusing an enemy of using a decoy can be an effective psyop tactic (making an enemy seem like a coward who dare not appear in person, for example).
This means that the confusion generated by the existence of real decoys is deepened by counterclaims of decoys where there may be none.
Perhaps the most famous political decoy, soldier M. E. Clifton James successfully impersonated General Bernard Montgomery ("Monty") for intelligence purposes during World War II
Adolf Hitler is known to have employed at least one double and it has been alleged that he employed as many as six
Teresa Barnwell has been a Clinton impersonator for 23 years, but she’s never had a morning like Monday. After Clinton (the real one) appeared to faint outside of the 9/11 Memorial in Manhattan on Sunday, then reappeared hours later outside of her daughter’s apartment appearing much healthier, Internet conspiracy theorists thought she was using a body double—and they were certain it was Barnwell.
On Monday, #HillarysBodyDouble was the No. 2 trend on Twitter—with Barnwell’s face and name usually appearing right next to it.
Barnwell was sitting around and eating lunch in Los Angeles, waiting to shoot an episode of Spike TV’s Lip Sync Battle (alongside a Bill impersonator, naturally) when she first heard about it
(Note - Top Nextbigfuture commenter requested coverage of this topic)
Pneumonia is usually contagious
The Clinton campaign indicated that Hillary was diagnosed with pneumonia for two days before the Sunday 9/11 fainting incident.
Bill Clinton has said that Hillary has freqent fainting spells
Pneumonia usually caused by an infection – most commonly, bacteria and viruses, which are contagious. It can also be caused by breathing in a foreign object (aspiration pneumonia) or, in rare cases, a fungal infection, which is not usually contagious. It seems likely that several hundred people if not thousands were exposed to Hillary's contagious pneumonia.
There is speculation that Hillary has Parkinsons disease
Health and Body doubles not the main driver of Drop in polls
Hillary looking weak and fainting at the 9/11 event did not help her in the polls. The main drivers appear to be the "basket of deplorables" comment and the continuing email issues and the perceptions of dishonesty. Millenials are going to the Libertarian candidate.