Neuromorphic computing uses structures or systems that are similar to those used in the human brain. Structures such as neurons and synapses.
If scientists and engineers are successful then they would be able to create systems that function like the human brain using comparable scale systems that emulated human neurons and synapses.
Memristors are promising in that there have already been hundreds of millions of memristors produced on single chips and it appears promising that memristors could be scaled to trillions in a few or single chips.
Current studies estimate that the average adult male human brain contains approximately 86 billion neurons. As a single neuron has hundreds to thousands of synapses, the estimated number of these functional contacts is much higher, in the trillions
Nature Materials- Memristors with diffusive dynamics as synaptic emulators for neuromorphic computing
13 pages of supplemental material
SOURCE - Nature Materials