December 17, 2016

US will try to re-accelerate hypersonic missiles tests in 2017

In 2016, Russia has twice tested a hypersonic glider meant to replace traditional warheads for new generations of intercontinental ballistic missiles, including the heavy Sarmat ICBM.

Military expert Boris Litovkin said that after entering the atmosphere the ultra-maneuverable hypersonic reentry vehicles are able to shift their targets in flight thus making them extremely hard to intercept.


Russia and China are only able to maneuver the hypersonic missiles at short ranges. The hypersonic missiles are delivered by conventional rockets, fighters or other vehicles before separating and going the last few hundred miles to the target.

China had hypersonic missile successes in 2016 including an air to air missile

A Chinese J-16 strike fighter test-fired the giant missile in November, 2016 and successfully destroying the target drone at a very long range


US started earlier with hypersonic missiles but has had inconsistent funding and testing

The U.S. Army and Navy are teaming up to test a hypersonic glide vehicle in 2017, according to an Army official. The “offensive weapon technology” is part of the Department of Defense’s Conventional Prompt Global Strike demonstration.

Conventional prompt global strike (CPGS) weapons would allow the United States to strike targets anywhere on Earth in as little as an hour. This capability may bolster U.S. efforts to deter and defeat adversaries by allowing the United States to attack high-value targets or “fleeting targets” at the start of or during a conflict. Congress has generally supported the PGS mission, but it has restricted funding and suggested some changes in funding for specific programs.

The Air Force and Navy have both considered deploying conventional warheads on their long range ballistic missiles. The Navy sought to deploy conventional warheads on a small number of Trident II submarine-launched ballistic missiles.



US Aegis destroyer demonstrates the ability to shoot down a maneuvering antiship missile like China's DF missiles

The US Missile Defense Agency and sailors aboard USS John Paul Jones (DDG 53), an Aegis baseline 9.C1 equipped destroyer, successfully fired a salvo of two SM-6 Dual I missiles against a complex medium-range ballistic missile target, demonstrating the Sea Based Terminal endo-atmospheric defensive capability and meeting the test's primary objective.

The test was conducted off the coast of Hawaii just after midnight on Dec. 14.

"This test demonstrated the capabilities MDA and the Navy are delivering to our fleet commanders," said MDA Director Vice Adm. Jim Syring. "The SM-6 missile and the Aegis Weapon System continue to prove that they are critical components of our nation's multilayered, robust ballistic missile defense system."

The SM-6 missile uses an explosive warhead to defeat ballistic missile threats, differing from other missile defense interceptors, such as the Standard Missile-3, which use non-explosive hit-to-kill technology.

The target missile was representative of a maneuvering incoming warhead similar to the ones mounted on the Chinese DF-21D or DF-26 anti-ship ballistic missiles.

If MDA test was indeed representative of a DF-21D or DF-26 type threat, it would help to explain why the U.S. Navy is so confident of its ability to operate inside those weapons’ threat rings.

In an actual conflict China would fire multiple missiles to overwhelm defense systems.



Elon Musk talking about making a tunneling company to fix traffic

Elon Musk has tweeted about starting a company that will make tunneling equipment and dig tunnels that will relieve traffic.

Elon Musk has started two transportation related companies Tesla for electric cars and Spacex for launching into space. He has also initiated the development of Hyperloop and believes that supersonic electric planes would be successful.

New technology has dramatically reduced the cost—and disruption—of building tunnels under busy cities for rail, road and utility projects. Engineers in recent decades have developed mechanized and automated systems to chew through deep rock or muck and immediately line an excavation to prevent collapse—all without disturbing the busy city above. That means projects that once would have taken armies of men years to dig now can advance in a fraction of the time and at much lower cost.

There is more innovation to be had and massive economic benefit to improving the ability to dig tunnels for transportation and for mining.

Arguing against the creation of another company for Elon Musk is that he has said that he does not have the time to start another company. He believes in Hyperloop and created detailed plans for nearly supersonic trainlike transportation. He then allowed others to create it.

Elon has indicated that his board and stockholders want him to focus on Spacex and Tesla. Solar City was combined into Tesla and Elon had previously left it to others to Solarcity.

Confirming if Elon is serious will need to see the actual introduction of a corporation and technology.












The number of tunnel-boring machines, or TBMs, in operation has surged since 2000. Herrenknecht AG, one of the world’s biggest TBM makers, says it is providing machines for as many as 100 projects annually, up from as many as 20 some 15 years ago.

“The ability to deliver a tunnel on time and on budget has changed a lot…and really pushed the industry,” says Achim Kühn, a spokesman for the privately held German company, whose tunnel-boring machines can cost more than $50 million each.

The MTA recently had to manually dig a particularly difficult 120-foot tunnel at a cost of almost $1 million per foot. By contrast, tunneling 3 miles under Second Avenue with giant machines cost about $19,000 per foot, he says.

New genes responsible for ALS identified using IBM Watson Health

Barrow Neurological Institute and IBM Watson Health today announced results of a revolutionary study that has identified new genes linked to Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS), also known as Lou Gehrig's disease. The discovery gives ALS researchers new insights that will pave the way for the development of new drug targets and therapies to combat one of the world's most devastating and deadly diseases.

The groundbreaking discovery involved IBM Watson, a cutting-edge form of artificial intelligence, to help unravel the mysteries of the brain and provide Barrow scientists with never-before-known data. IBM Watson became known around the nation in 2011 when it competed against human contestants on Jeopardy, and won.

ALS is a progressive and degenerative disease in which the cells that control voluntary muscle movements die, leading to paralysis and, ultimately death. Scientists don't yet know what causes ALS and there is just one FDA-approved medication but is only marginally effective. Most individuals die from ALS within three to five years from the onset of symptoms. Approximately 6,000 people are diagnosed with ALS every year.

Barrow began working with IBM last year to explore unidentified genes and proteins that may be linked to ALS using its life sciences solution, Watson for Drug Discovery. The cognitive tool, which uses machine learning, natural language processing, and other cognitive reasoning technologies, was trained about proteins that Barrow already knew were related to the disease using data given by Barrow as well as all published research information surrounding ALS.

Within months, Watson for Drug Discovery rank ordered all of the nearly 1,500 genes within the human genome and proposed predictions regarding which genes might be associated with ALS. The Barrow team then examined Watson's top evidence-based predictions and found eight of the top 10 ranked genes proved to be linked to the disease. More significantly, the study found five never before linked genes associated with ALS. Without IBM Watson for Drug Discovery, researchers predict the discovery would have taken years rather than only a few months. Barrow, located at Dignity Health St. Joseph's Hospital and Medical Center and is considered one of the world's leading neuroscience centers.



December 16, 2016

Amazon building an app that matches truck drivers to shippers

Amazon is building an app that matches truck drivers with shippers, a new service that would deepen its presence in the $800 billion trucking industry.

The app, scheduled to launch next summer, is designed to make it easier for truck drivers to find shippers that need goods moved, much in the way Uber connects drivers with riders. It would also eliminate the need for a third-party broker, which typically charges a commission of about 15% for doing the middleman work.

The app will offer real-time pricing and driving directions, as well as personalized features such as truck-stop recommendations and a suggested "tour" of loads to pick up and drop off. It could also have tracking and payment options to speed up the entire shipping process.


Amazon is considering creating its own fleet of air freight shippers to compete head-to-head with UPS, FedEx, and the USPS. A new report suggests that Amazon's logistics ambitions could be even grander than anyone realized.

Internal company documents obtained by Bloomberg suggest that Amazon senior management reviewed a proposal to create a global logistics and fulfillment infrastructure as far back as 2013. The internal proposal, dubbed Operation Dragon Boat, illustrates a worldwide delivery system that transports goods produced by third-party suppliers from places like India and China all the way to a hypothetical home in Atlanta. This idea spans the entire shipping life cycle from the first mile to the much detested "last mile."

The initiative would yield a new business line for Amazon, known as "Global Supply Chain by Amazon," seeking to capitalize on the estimated $1 trillion in annual global cross-border e-commerce sales expected by 2020. Amazon could launch Global Supply Chain by Amazon as soon as later this year, claims Bloomberg.

Exosuits and Exoskeletons will be hitting milestones and ramping up from 2017-2026

The DARPA Warrior Web program aims to significantly lower the “metabolic cost” — or energy expenditure — of troops operating in the field, and reduce the physiological burden of the gear that they carry, which can exceed 100 pounds.

They are developing soft robotic exosuits that are designed to provide power and torque to critical body joints. At least 15 Warrior Web prototypes have been tested in laboratories and outdoor settings.

The amount of reduction depends on the individual wearing the suit, but researchers have seen greater than 10 percent in some cases, he said.

Conor Walsh, a leading robotics expert at Harvard University’s Wyss Institute for Biologically Inspired Engineering, said the goal is to achieve a reduction of 25 percent or more. “The exciting thing is that you’re able to now kind of say … it’s possible to make it easier for a healthy person to walk when carrying a load,” he said. “Now we’re kind of at this next juncture … to say, ‘How do we make the benefit as big as possible?’”

Army Chief of Staff Gen. Mark Milley is bullish about the potential of robotic exosuits.

“They’re not ready for prime time today but … I think within 10 years things like that [soft exosuis) are going to be very, very possible on the battlefield,” he said at a recent conference.

For the Warrior Web program, DARPA has set the maximum power consumption from the battery source at 100 watts. But the equipment would probably need to consume less than that for it to be viable in the field, Girolamo said.

Weight is also a concern. A heavy exosuit would add to the warfighter’s load burden and offset any metabolic reduction gains that it could generate. A system would likely need to weigh 6 kilograms or less to be effective, said Tom Sugar, an engineering professor and the co-founder of Arizona State University’s Human Machine Integration Lab, which has received DARPA funding for exosuit development.

Army officials recently held a preliminary design review of a Wyss Institute robotic system and discussed improvements that could be made. The metabolic reduction numbers “looked good,” and a limited user evaluation is slated for spring 2017, Girolamo said.

Walsh expects to demonstrate the “optimized version” of his team’s prototype suit next summer.

Development efforts undertaken thus far have put Army scientists and engineers in a strong position to take the project to the next level, Girolamo said.



Liquid Biopsy Chip Detects Metastatic Cancer Cells in a Drop of Blood

A chip developed by mechanical engineers at Worcester Polytechnic Institute (WPI) can trap and identify metastatic cancer cells in a small amount of blood drawn from a cancer patient. The breakthrough technology uses a simple mechanical method that has been shown to be more effective in trapping cancer cells than the microfluidic approach employed in many existing devices.

The WPI device uses antibodies attached to an array of carbon nanotubes at the bottom of a tiny well. Cancer cells settle to the bottom of the well, where they selectively bind to the antibodies based on their surface markers (unlike other devices, the chip can also trap tiny structures called exosomes produced by cancers cells). This “liquid biopsy,” described in a recent issue of the journal Nanotechnology, could become the basis of a simple lab test that could quickly detect early signs of metastasis and help physicians select treatments targeted at the specific cancer cells identified.

A cross section of one of the wells in the WPI device, showing how cancer cells sink to the bottom of
a blood sample, where they are captured by antibodies bound to carbon nanotubes. The bound cells
trigger an electrical response, which is detected by the electrodes.



Nanotechnology - Static micro-array isolation, dynamic time series classification, capture and enumeration of spiked breast cancer cells in blood: the nanotube–CTC chip

China has grabbed a US Navy oceanagraphic drone 50 miles off Philippines in South China Sea

A U.S. Navy unmanned bouancy glider was take by Chinese forces in international waters earlier this week, two defense officials confirmed to USNI News on Friday.

The glider was operating with U.S. Military Sealift Command ship USNS Bowditch (T-AGS-62) about 50 miles off of Subic Bay in the Philippines when a People’s Liberation Army Navy ship took the glider both defense officals said.

“A Chinese naval ship that had been shadowing the Bowditch put a small boat into the water. That small boat came up alongside and the Chinese crew took one of the drones,” CNN reported on Friday

The gliders, far from the Navy’s most sophisticated unmanned vehicles, are used by the service as oceanagraphic survey tools. The gliders largely use unclassified means to collect data for the Navy’s charts and ocean models. The service deploys the systems for months at a time and they transmit data back to the Navy.

The Bowditch made radio contact with the Chinese ship to demand its immediate return but were "ignored". "This is not the sort of conduct we expect from professional navies," Capt Davis added.




China has built seven large islands in the South China Sea and put air strips and antiship and antimissile weapons on them. There are many different claims to the South China Sea.

The South China Sea has global geopolitical strategic value and has perhaps a trillion dollars worth of oil and natural gas.

The South China Sea is a potential flash point for conflict.

US Navy would ideally like 653 ships but new plan calls for minimum of 355 ships navy

The Navy released a new fleet plan that calls for 355 ships, outlining a massive increase in the size of its high-end large surface combatant and attack submarine fleets but a modest increase in its planned amphibious ship fleet, according to a Dec. 14 summary of the assessment.

The plan mainly calls for adding more destroyers and attack submarines.

The findings of the latest Force Structure Assessment adds 47 ships to the Navy’s battle force over the 308-ship figure from a 2014 FSA.

The service determined the 355 total was the “minimum force structure to comply with [Pentagon] strategic guidance” and was not “the “desired” force size the Navy would pursue if resources were not a constraint, read the summary.

“Rather, this is the level that balances an acceptable level of warfighting risk to our equipment and personnel against available resources and achieves a force size that can reasonably achieve success,” according to the summary, which notes it would take a 653-ship force to meet all global requirements with minimal risk.


The new total comes as Navy Secretary Ray Mabus and Defense Secretary Ash Carter have engaged in a public spat over the direction of the Navy’s shipbuilding program, and as the Trump administration prepares to take office and potentially begin moving towards its stated goal of building a 350-ship Navy.

The new plan calls for adding one additional aircraft carrier to the Navy’s force structure, bringing the service total to 12.



The Navy now intends to build to a force of 66 attack submarines, up from about 50 SSNs today and stated requirement for 48, to “provide the global presence required to support national tasking and prompt warfighting response.”

Based on the combatant commanders’ testimony, it would take a fleet of at least 80 SSNs to fill all their requests, which would be unfeasible for the submarine shipbuilding industry – which consists of two yards, General Dynamics’ Electric Boat and Huntington Ingalls’ Newport News Shipbuilding – given the start of construction activities for the new Columbia-class ballistic missile submarine replacement program.

Deepmind AI targets Starcraft

Demis Hassabis, cofounder of Google-owned firm DeepMind, and Jeff Dean, who leads the Google Brain project, have both hinted that StarCraft will be their next target, while Facebook researchers have just released an open-source platform designed to help people develop AI to play the game.

Succeeding in StarCraft would be a show of strategic strength. AI’s gaming prowess reached new heights in March when DeepMind’s AlphaGo system defeated one of the world’s best Go players, Lee Sedol. The AI’s ability to win at Go was particularly impressive owing to the complexity of the ancient Chinese game. There are more possible moves in Go than there are atoms in the universe, so AlphaGo couldn’t work out its strategy simply by “solving” the game. Instead, its neural networks were trained using a database of 30 million moves made by expert human players. The software could then evaluate how each potential move in a real-life game would alter its overall chance of victory, allowing it to choose the best one.

Starcraft is a popular video game which involves building huge armies to battle against other players over a large virtual terrain. Players can’t see exactly what their opponents are up to, so they have to make decisions based on incomplete information – just like in the real world. Mastering the chaos in StarCraft will therefore have implications beyond video games: it should improve AI’s ability to deal with reality.



December 15, 2016

China inducting J20 stealth fighters into air force as active service planes

At least six J-20s stealth fighters are in active service, with four tail numbers 78271,78272,78273 and 78274 identified. And another six are ready to be delivered by end of Dec 2016

According to the Chinese aviation expert Dafeng Cao who posts under the Twitter handle @xinfengcao, six J-20 stealth fighters will be inducted into the Chinese air force at a formal ceremony later this month.

Recent speculations refer to the J-20 as an air-to-air fighter with an emphasis on forward stealth, high-speed aerodynamics, range, and adequate agility. The J-20 could threaten vulnerable tankers and ISR/C2 platforms, depriving Washington of radar coverage and strike range. However one of these targets, the Northrop Grumman E-2 Hawkeye, is reported to be optimized for spotting fighter sized stealth aircraft such as the J-20







Tax cuts and other fiscal stimulus could boost US contribution to world economic growth up to the level of India


The world economy grew by 2.7% in the third quarter of 2016 compared with a year earlier, down from 2.8% the previous quarter. Growth remains steady in India and China: together they accounted for 65% of world growth. Other emerging markets struggled: they contributed 16%, down from 21% in the previous quarter, their lowest share since 2008. In particular, falling smartphone exports took a heavy toll on South Korea.

Adding US GDP growth to China and India gets to about 75% of world growth.


US real annual GDP growth did not exceed 3% for any of the last ten years



A new macroeconomic analysis of the Trump plan is made by the University of Pennsylvania's Wharton School in collaboration with the Tax Policy Center.

Donald Trump's tax proposals could spur more economic growth and more jobs ... for awhile. But by 2024, that positive effect turns negative. His plan would slow growth created relative to what's expected under today's policies.

Its model estimates that Trump's plan could add an additional 1.1% in 2018 relative to current law. But by 2024 that positive effect is erased and by 2027 it could lower GDP by 0.78%. By 2037, it could produce 4.6% less GDP than expected.

JP Morgan economist Michael Feroli thinks the Trump fiscal program could boost GDP by 1.5% over two years while doubling the federal budget deficit. But import curbs could cripple US businesses dependent on global supply chains.

The nominal US gross domestic product (GDP) grew at an annual rate of 1.9% since 2002.

Tax cuts and other fiscal stimulus could boost US contribution to world economic growth up to the level of India. India has been contributing about 20% of world economic growth. China has been contributing 45%. Higher US growth would also likely boost the growth in other countries as well.

Intermittent expression of genes normally associated with an embryonic state reverses aging in mammals and enables mice to live 30 percent longer

Scientists have shown it is possible to reverse ageing in animals. Scientists at the Salk Institute have found that intermittent expression of genes normally associated with an embryonic state can reverse the hallmarks of old age. Salk Institute researchers discovered that partial cellular reprogramming reversed cellular signs of aging such as accumulation of DNA damage. Progeria mouse fibroblast cells were rejuvenated by partial reprogramming.

Using a new technique allows mice to not only look younger, but live for 30 per cent longer. Human trials are projected within 10 years for a drug that would mimic the effects.

Scientists have known for some time that the four genes, which are known collectively as the Yamanaka factors, could turn adult cells back to their stem cell state, where they can grow into any part of the body.

But it was always feared that allowing that to happen could damage organs made from the cells, and even trigger cancer.

However, it was discovered that stimulating the genes intermittently reversed ageing, without causing any damaging side effects.

The technique involves stimulating four genes which are particularly active during development in the womb. It was also found to work to turn the clock back on human skin cells in the lab, making them look and behave younger.

The early-stage work provides insight both into the cellular drivers of aging and possible therapeutic approaches for improving human health and longevity.



“Our study shows that aging may not have to proceed in one single direction,” says Juan Carlos Izpisua Belmonte, a professor in Salk’s Gene Expression Laboratory and senior author of the paper appearing in the December 15, 2016, issue of Cell. “It has plasticity and, with careful modulation, aging might be reversed.”

As people in modern societies live longer, their risk of developing age-related diseases goes up. In fact, data shows that the biggest risk factor for heart disease, cancer and neurodegenerative disorders is simply age. One clue to halting or reversing aging lies in the study of cellular reprogramming, a process in which the expression of four genes known as the Yamanaka factors allows scientists to convert any cell into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). Like embryonic stem calls, iPSCs are capable of dividing indefinitely and becoming any cell type present in our body.

Induction of reprogramming improved muscle regeneration in aged mice. (Left) impaired muscle repair in aged mice; (right) improved muscle regeneration in aged mice subjected to reprogramming. Credit Salk Institute

Journal Cell - In Vivo Amelioration of Age-Associated Hallmarks by Partial Reprogramming

Highlights

•Partial reprogramming erases cellular markers of aging in mouse and human cells
•Induction of OSKM in progeria mice ameliorates signs of aging and extends lifespan
•In vivo reprogramming improves regeneration in 12-month-old wild-type mice

Summary

Aging is the major risk factor for many human diseases. In vitro studies have demonstrated that cellular reprogramming to pluripotency reverses cellular age, but alteration of the aging process through reprogramming has not been directly demonstrated in vivo. Here, we report that partial reprogramming by short-term cyclic expression of Oct4, Sox2, Klf4, and c-Myc (OSKM) ameliorates cellular and physiological hallmarks of aging and prolongs lifespan in a mouse model of premature aging. Similarly, expression of OSKM in vivo improves recovery from metabolic disease and muscle injury in older wild-type mice. The amelioration of age-associated phenotypes by epigenetic remodeling during cellular reprogramming highlights the role of epigenetic dysregulation as a driver of mammalian aging. Establishing in vivo platforms to modulate age-associated epigenetic marks may provide further insights into the biology of aging.

Last two finalists for Qualcomm Tricorder XPrize Could join forces to go to market

A bit of a mutual admiration society has developed between the two finalists in Qualcomm’s $10 million Tricorder XPRIZE competition. Whatever animus might have developed in the nearly half-decade since the contest was announced at CES 2012 has seemingly taken a back seat to an appreciation for what the other team has accomplished. Dynamical Biomarkers Group head Dr. Chung-Kang Peng casually mentioned that the two sides have discussed joining forces when it comes time to bring products to market.

The XPrize foundation has already doled out around one million in milestone prizes, helping keep teams afloat over the past few years as the original 40 teams (itself down from 300 or so who pre-registered) were whittled down to a top 10 in 2014, now down to a final two. The Xprize tricorder winner will be announced in Q2 2017.

The goal, as outlined by the foundation, is to create a real-world version of the Star Trek Tricorder, a mobile diagnostic medical device weighing less than five pounds that is capable of diagnosing at least 13 different health conditions. Of those, the following must be included: “Anemia, Atrial Fibrillation, Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease, Diabetes, Leukocytosis, Pneumonia, Otitis Media, Sleep Apnea and Urinary Tract Infection. Beyond that, the teams had to select three others, including “HIV Screen, Hypertension, Melanoma, Shingles and Strep Throat.”



Dynamical Biomarkers Group

Dynamical Biomarkers Group has developed a system of three modules: Smart Vital-Sense Monitor; Smart Blood-Urine Test Kit; Smart Scope Module. These modules incorporated innovative hardware, technologies for physiologic signal analysis, image processing, biomarker detection. They have each been designed to allow consumers to use them in a simple and intuitive way, as they are wirelessly connected to a smartphone, which runs a user-friendly app with an intelligent and interactive screening process that guides the users to carry out specific tests to generate disease diagnosis.




Final Frontier Medical Devices

Final Frontier Medical Devices, is led by brothers Dr. Basil Harris, an emergency medicine physician, and George Harris, a network engineer.

The team created DxtER (pronounced Dexter), a tricorder prototype, for the Qualcomm Tricorder XPRIZE competition. DxtER is a consumer product designed to monitor your health and diagnose illnesses in the comfort of your own home. DxtER functions autonomously, but can also share important information with your healthcare providers at your discretion. At the heart of DxtER is an artificially intelligent engine that learned to diagnose by integrating years of experience in clinical emergency medicine with data analysis from actual patients having a variety of medical conditions and outcomes. Included with DxtER is a collection of non-invasive sensors custom-designed to collect data about your vital signs, body chemistry, and biological functions. The diagnostic engine synthesizes your health data to make a quick and accurate assessment.



China still acquiring Russian Su-35s as there are still things China needs to copy

Russia will provide to China the first batch of four Sukhoi-35 jets by December 25, 2016, a source within the system of military-technical cooperation with other countries told TASS.

"The first four Sukhoi-35 are to fly over to China by December 25," the source said.

Originally the deliveries were to begin as of next year, but eventually a decision was made to speed up the process and to provide the first batch in the last days of the outgoing year.

The Sukhoi-35 is Russia's multirole highly maneuverable fighter (generation 4 ++) with a phased array antenna radar and thrust vectoring engines. It can develop a maximum speed of 2,500 kilometers per hour and fly 3,400 kilometers without refueling. The combat range is 1,600 kilometers. The fighter is armed with a 30-mm gun and has twelve bomb and rocket suspension units.

In August 2016, China made public that it set up a new state-owned aircraft engine maker to accelerate the development of new high-performance turbofan engines. China’s aviation industry is currently working on the WS-13 Taishan turbofan, a derivative of the Russian Klimov RD-33 turbofan, among other things.

According to Janes Weekly. New JF-17 fighters are now flying with WS-13 engine and even attended the prestigious Paris air show

China develops several versions of each type of engine as they try to develop ongoing improvements


Chinese-made military turbofan engines such as the WS-10 are under-performing, according to various reports. Even the PLAAF’s two fifth-generation fighter jet prototypes–the Chengdu J-20 and Shenyang J-31–are reportedly equipped with older Russian-made jet engines–the Saturn AL-31 and the Klimov RD-93, first introduced in the early 1980s for the Sukhoi Su-27.

Whenever a final contract will be inked, according to Buzhinsky, China will not receive Russia’s most advanced Su-35 model: “We have export version and a version for our own use. The Chinese are very good at copying all kinds of stuff.”


China is producing about 400 WS-10 engine variants for their J11D fighter.

Calico focused on trying to gain insight into biology of aging which has been disappointing to those who favor SENS style antiaging

Google's antiaging company Calico is building a Bell Labs of aging research. They hope to extend the human life span by coming up with a breakthrough as important, and as useful to humanity, as the transistor has been.

Among Calico’s first hires was Cynthia Kenyon, now its vice president of aging research, who 20 years ago showed that altering a single DNA letter in a laboratory roundworm made it live six weeks instead of three.

Google’s founders created an academic-­biotech hybrid they call an R and D company to follow up on such clues, providing nearly unlimited funding to a group of top researchers. Calico has hired stars like artificial-intelligence specialist Daphne Koller. With equal contributions from Google’s parent company, Alphabet, and the drug company AbbVie, it has $1.5 billion in the bank

Calico is an elite university research group housed within a corporate bunker, doing mostly basic science. It has more than 100 employees and has assembled a Noah’s ark of yeast, worms, and more exotic creatures like the naked mole rats, which are kept at the Buck Institute for Research on Aging, about 30 miles from Calico’s South San Francisco headquarters.

What’s different about a mole rat (which lives ten times longer than mice and most other rodents) ? That is the sort of costly, open-ended question Calico can afford to ask. And then there’s the seven-year study Calico is financing that will follow 1,000 mice from birth to death to search for biomarkers of aging. Right now, there’s no proven test for a person’s “biological” age; finding one would be scientifically useful and possibly lucrative. “They don’t open the kimono much,” says Brian ­Kennedy, a Buck Institute scientist who interacts with Calico. “I think they believe we need a broader grasp on the biology of aging. They recognize it can’t possibly be ­simple.”

Scientists don’t know enough about why animals age. Calico’s Hal Barron, hired from Roche to lead its drug development efforts, told the National Academy of Medicine in 2015 that there would be no short-term payoff. “We believe you have to take a very long view,” he said, “and not rush into the clinic until you really know what you are doing.”

A hundred and seventy five years ago most people died from infections, not from old age. Thanks to vaccines, better nutrition, and all-around improvements in public health and medicine, life expectancy at birth in wealthy nations has doubled from 40 to around 80 years, an average gain of 2.5 years per decade. But now that we live longer, we have traded up to a new set of killers that are harder to beat: cancer, heart disease, stroke, and dementia.

For all these diseases, aging is the single biggest risk factor. An 80-year-old is 40 times as likely to die from cancer as someone middle-aged. The risk for Alzheimer’s rises by 600 times. But what if it were possible to postpone all these deaths by treating aging itself?

“I think we have failed in our effort to attack chronic disease when we attack them one by one,” Sierra says. “And the reason is that they have one major risk factor, which is the biology of aging.”



According to Botstein, aging research is still seeking a truly big insight. Imagine, he says, doctors fighting infections without knowing what a virus is. Or think back to cancer research in the 1960s. There were plenty of theories then. But it was the discovery of oncogenes—specific genes able to turn cells cancerous—that provided scientists with their first real understanding of what causes tumors.

Lucid motors reveals super luxury 1000 hp electric car which they will release in 2018

Lucid Motors has revealed details of its 1,000 horse power electric luxury car.

The California-based company claims its first car, the Air, will have 400 miles of electric range and fast-charging batteries that can stand up to repeated charge cycles without degradation. The Batteries are supplied by Samsung.

It will have a 100kWh battery, a 2.5-second 0-60 mph time and a target market date of 2018. The vehicle prototype was shown off today at a special unveiling event in Fremont, California.

Lucid’s founding team includes CTO Peter Rawlinson, a former Tesla team member, as well as Derek Jenkins, previously of Mazda and VW and BMW alum Brian Barron. The Lucid Motors plan is to build these electric vehicles starting in 2017 in Arizona, at a new factory facility that’s set to bring around 2,000 new jobs to the sate according to the company and Arizona Governor Doug Ducey.



Packaging perfection allows us to introduce unprecedented comfort via rear executive seats with up to 55 degrees of recline. This luxury option offers a first-class aircraft seating experience in the back of your car.




China mass producing fighter jets engines for the J11D fighter which is a copy of the Russian Su-35

Advances in China's jet engine designs have led to the launch of the J-11D, which is a home-grown version of the russian Su-35

China is ready to launch its new ­J-11D fighter after it failed to acquire Russian engines on schedule and was forced to develop its own technology, military observers said.

The progress included advances in home-grown turbofan technology and radar systems, and showed that Beijing was no longer reliant on Russian engines for its new generation of fighters, analysts said.

After a decade of negotiations, China and Russia inked a deal for 24 Su-35 aircraft last year.

China had hoped the deal would include delivery of an extra 48 117S engines, that it could use in its newer aircraft like the J-20.

But Russian red tape forced China to upgrade the Su-27s it already had and develop its own variant of the Su-35, the J-11D. The J-11D, built by Shenyang Aircraft Corporation, made its maiden flight on April 29 last year.

Some of the most noticeable improvements are in the radar system, the addition of a computer-controlled antenna that can point in different directions without moving, and greater use of composites and stealth coatings in the fuselage to cut weight. The maiden flight also revealed that the J-11D is powered by a WS-10 engine, a turbofan design originally developed by a subsidiary of Chinese aerospace giant Aviation Industry Corporation of China (Avic), SAC’s parent company.

In its annual report in July, Avic said it built more than 400 WS-10 engines last year, suggesting the ­J-10 and J-11 fighters no longer needed Russian engines.

The J-11D is powered by a new WS-10 variant; the variant reportedly had improved reliability, with a thrust of more than 13 tons, and less than that of the AL-31F-M1.



December 14, 2016

China installed anti-aircraft and anti-missile systems on all seven major artificial south china sea islands

China appears to have built significant point-defense capabilities, in the form of large anti-aircraft guns and probable close-in weapons systems (CIWS), at each of its outposts in the Spratly Islands. AMTI began tracking the construction of identical, hexagon-shaped structures at Fiery Cross, Mischief, and Subi Reefs in June and July. It now seems that these structures are an evolution of point-defense fortifications already constructed at China’s smaller facilities on Gaven, Hughes, Johnson, and Cuarteron Reefs.

China has installed weapons, including anti-aircraft and anti-missile systems, on all seven of the artificial islands it has built in the South China Sea.

The Center for Strategic and International Studies said its findings come despite statements by the Chinese leadership that Beijing has no intention to militarize the islands in the strategic trade route, where territory is claimed by several countries.

AMTI said it had been tracking construction of hexagonal structures on Fiery Cross, Mischief and Subi reefs in the Spratly Islands since June and July. China has already built military length airstrips on these islands.

China has built nearly identical headquarters buildings at each of its four smaller artificial islands. The two smallest of the islets, Hughes and Gaven Reefs, feature four arms built off of these central structures. The end of each of these arms sports a hexagonal platform, approximately 30 feet wide. The northeastern and southwestern arms host what are most likely anti-aircraft guns (roughly 20 feet long when measured to the tip of the barrel). The other two platforms hold smaller (roughly 10-foot-wide) objects without clearly visible barrels. These cannot be definitively identified, but are likely CIWS to protect against cruise missile strikes







South Korea KSTAR tokamak operates in high plasma mode for a record of 70 seconds

The Korean Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research (KSTAR) tokamak-type nuclear fusion reactor has achieved a world record of 70 seconds in high-performance plasma operation, South Korea's National Fusion Research Institute (NFRI) has announced.

The institute, based at Daejeon, 160 km south of Seoul, said a fully non-inductive operation mode - called a "high poloidal beta scenario" - has been used to achieve this long and steady state of operation using high-power neutral beam. It said various techniques, including a rotating 3D field, have been applied to alleviate the accumulated heat fluxes on the plasma-facing components.

"The world record for high-performance plasma for more than a minute demonstrated that the KSTAR is the forefront in steady-state plasma operation technology in a superconducting device," NFRI said in a statement today. "This is a huge step forward for realization of the fusion reactor."

In addition, the institute said, KSTAR researchers also succeeded in achieving an alternative advanced plasma operation mode with the internal transport barrier (ITB). This is a steep pressure gradient in the core of the plasmas due to the enhanced core plasma confinement. NFRI said this is the first ITB operation achieved in the superconducting device at the lowest heating power.


US Navy has Autonomous Swarmboats

Autonomous unmanned swarming boats were put through their paces in a recent demonstration in the lower Chesapeake Bay—with results that show dramatic new possibilities for autonomy in future naval missions.

Using a unique combination of software, radar and other sensors, officials from the Office of Naval Research (ONR)—together with partners from industry, academia and other government organizations—were able to get a “swarm” of rigid hull inflatable boats (RHIBs) and other small boats to collectively perform patrol missions autonomously, with only remote human supervision, rather than direct human operation, as they performed their missions.

“This demonstration showed some remarkable advances in autonomous capabilities,” said Cmdr. Luis Molina, military deputy for ONR’s Sea Warfare and Weapons Dept. “While previous work had focused on autonomous protection of high-value ships, this time we were focused on harbor approach defense.”





Elon Musk on Trump advisory board and other Spacex news

1. President-elect Donald J. Trump’s Strategic and Policy Forum has picked up Uber Technologies’ Travis Kalanick and SpaceX’s Elon Musk.

The two appointees join a board headed by private equity titan Stephen Schwarzman, who heads the multi-billion-dollar private equity firm The Blackstone Group (it also was announced that Indra Nooyi, CEO and chair of PepsiCo, is joining the forum).

Created by the President-elect earlier this month, the forum includes some of the biggest names in American business, including:
GM head Mary Barra;
Jamie Dimon, the chairman and chief executive of JP Morgan Chase;
Larry Fink, the chairman and chief executive of BlackRock;
Bob Iger, the head of The Walt Disney Company;
Rich Lesser, the head of the Boston Consulting Group;
Ginni Rometty, the head of IBM and
retired executives like Jack Welch from General Electric and Jim McNerney, who led Boeing.

2. NASA doesn't plan to put any science instruments aboard SpaceX's first Mars mission, which could launch as early as 2018, agency officials said.

NASA wants to wait until SpaceX proves it can pull off a soft landing on the Red Planet before committing millions of dollars' worth of equipment to the spaceflight company's "Red Dragon" effort, said Jim Green, head of the agency's Planetary Science Division.

"Landing on Mars is hard," Green said during a talk Tuesday (Dec. 13) here at the annual fall meeting of the American Geophysical Union (AGU). "I want to wait this one out.

SpaceX founder and CEO Elon Musk has said the company plans to launch uncrewed Dragon capsules toward the Red Planet at every launch opportunity for the foreseeable future, ideally beginning in 2018. (Such windows come just once every 26 months, when Earth and Mars align favorably.)"


Thanks to its design integrating a robust heat shield and powerful thrusters, a modified Dragon 2 capsule may perform all the necessary entry, descent and landing (EDL) functions in order to deliver payloads of 1 tonne (2,200 lb) or more to the Martian surface without using a parachute; the use of parachutes is not feasible without significant vehicle modification

Uber launches self driving cars in San Francisco

In September, Uber introduced the world’s first Self-Driving Ubers to the Steel City. Three months later, we’re bringing Volvo XC90s to San Francisco. They are incredibly excited to work with Volvo to pair our state-of-the-art self-driving technology with Volvo’s outstanding vehicle development and core safety capabilities.




Uber rolled out its self-driving car fleet in its hometown of San Francisco, despite lacking the proper permit that state regulators say is required.

Starting Wednesday, riders who request an UberX, one of the company’s budget ride options, may be matched with a self-driving Uber. It is unclear how many of these cars Uber has in San Francisco.

Launching the program kicked off a battle with the California Department of Motor Vehicles, which said on Tuesday that Uber does not have a permit to test autonomous vehicles on California roads, and demanded the company follow the permitting process that is in place.


“Twenty manufacturers have already obtained permits to test hundreds of cars on California roads. Uber shall do the same,” the agency said in a written statement.


Amazon has first commercial drone delivery on December 7, 2016

Amazon Prime Air is a delivery system from Amazon designed to safely get packages to customers in 30 minutes or less using unmanned aerial vehicles, also called drones. Prime Air has great potential to enhance the services we already provide to millions of customers by providing rapid parcel delivery that will also increase the overall safety and efficiency of the transportation system.

Amazon had their first commercial delivery on December 7, 2016

Amazon said a new private trial – also in the UK – will now deliver packages up to 2.3 kg in weight in 30 minutes or less using the drones, which it began testing earlier this year. The initial trial will start with two customers, with plans to expand to others in the local area.

Amazon’s drones are fully autonomous and are dispatched from a local center. After customers make their order, their boxed goods are placed inside the body of the drone. The drone is then sent outside down an automated track before taking off vertically. The drones are guided by GPS and fly below 120 meters to land on ground near the customer’s home.




Pretty much all user data at Yahoo was hacked

Yahoo on Wednesday disclosed a breach that took place in August of 2013 which may have resulted in data associated with more than one billion user accounts being stolen.

This new, 1-billion-account breach is separate from a 500-million-account breach the company disclosed in September.

At the time, the 500-million-account breach was the largest on record.

Nextbigfuture thinks if you ever had any user data at Yahoo then you can assume it has been in the hands of hackers since 2013.

Yahoo disclosed in November that a law enforcement officials had given it data files showing what appeared to be evidence that an unknown third party had access to Yahoo user data.

Yahoo brought in outside forensic experts and confirmed that the data was in fact from Yahoo users

Yahoo owns 384 million shares of Alibaba (15.4% of the company), valued at $35 billion and 35.5% equity interest in Yahoo Japan, worth about $8.5 billion. Yahoo’s total market cap is less than the $39.2 billion, and after accounting for the cash on the company’s balance sheet, this means Yahoo’s core business is valued at less than $0

Alibaba is currently worth $91.19

Nvidia's $129000 170 TeraFlop minisupercomputer for Artificial Intelligence

Early customers of Nvidia’s DGX-1, which combines machine-learning software with eight of the chip maker’s highest-end graphics processing units (GPUs), say the system lets them train their analytical models faster, enables greater experimentation, and could facilitate breakthroughs in science, health care, and financial services.

Data scientists have been leveraging GPUs to accelerate deep learning—an AI technique that mimics the way human brains process data—since 2012, but many say that current computing systems limit their work. Faster computers such as the DGX-1 promise to make deep-learning algorithms more powerful and let data scientists run deep-learning models that previously weren’t possible.

The DGX-1 isn’t a magical solution for every company. It costs $129,000, more than systems that companies could assemble themselves from individual components. It also comes with a fixed amount of system memory and GPU cards. But because the relevant parts and programs are preinstalled in a metal enclosure about the size of a medium suitcase, and since it pairs advanced hardware with fast connectivity, Nvidia claims the DGX-1 is easier to set up and quicker at analyzing data than previous GPU systems. Moreover, the positive reception the DGX-1 has attracted in its first few months of availability suggests that similar all-in-one deep-learning systems could help organizations run more AI experiments and refine them more rapidly. Though the DGX-1 is the only system of its kind today, Nvidia’s manufacturing partners will release new versions of the supercomputer in early 2017.

The DGX-1’s 3U chassis holds a dual 16-core Xeon E5-2698 v3 arrangement, 512 GB of DDR4-2133 LRDIMMs, four Samsung PM863 1.92 TB storage drives, dual 10 gigabit Ethernet (10GBase-T) as well as four EDR Infiniband connections. This system serves not only to feed the Teslas, but to further drive home NVIDIA’s scalability goals as well, with the Infiniband connections in particular put in place to allow for high-performance DGX-1 clusters. Of course with so much hardware on hand you’ll need a lot of power to drive it as well – 3200W, to be precise – as the 8 P100s alone can draw up to 2400W.


Fewer than 100 companies and organizations have bought DGX-1s since they started shipping in the fall, but early adopters say Nvidia’s claims about the system seem to hold up. Jackie Hunter, CEO of London-based BenevolentAI’s life sciences arm, BenevolentBio, says her data science team had models training on the system the same day it was installed. She says the team was able to develop several large-scale models designed to identify suitable molecules for drugs within eight weeks. These models train three to four times faster on the DGX-1 than on the startup’s other GPU systems, Hunter says. “We had multiple models that originally took weeks to train, but we can now do this in days and hours instead,” she adds.

Massachusetts General Hospital has a DGX-1 in one of its data centers and has one more on order. It says it needs GPU supercomputers such as the DGX-1 to crunch large volumes of dissimilar types of data. MGH’s Center for Clinical Data Science, which is coördinating access to the hospital’s DGX-1 across the Boston-area PartnersHealthCare system, says projects using the supercomputer will involve analyzing pathology and radiology images, electronic health records, and genomic information.

“If you’re incorporating not just x-rays, but a whole host of clinical information, billing information, and social media feeds as indicators of a patient’s health, you really do need large amounts of GPU computing power to crush that,” says center director Mark Michalski.


Prototypes for vehicles to replace the helicopter in 2030 will fly in 2017 and they will be twice as fast

The US Marine Corps, Army and the Navy are looking to the next generation of vertical lift that goes beyond the traditional helicopter. Potential adversaries are forcing the services’ to move their support facilities further and further away from the forward line of combatant.

Col. John Barranco, speaking at the Center for Strategic and International Studies, those restrictions put new emphasis on speed, range, payload, survivability and sustainability for aircraft that are projected to be entering the fleet in the early 2030s. They would replace Bell UH-1 Yankees Venom and Bell AH-1 Zulus Viper.

Col. Erskine Bentley, the head of the Army’s Future Vertical Lift program, said with increased lethality the new aircraft “gives us maneuverability and agility” on the future battlefield. ‘We’re just scratching the surface “in the very long investment in [science and technology]” that is looking at open architecture and inserting advanced technologies as apps into future vertical lift.


The Sikorsky-Boeing entry, called the SB-1 Defiant, is a compound helicopter design with co-axial rotors and a pusher-propeller. The aircraft is based on Sikorsky’s revolutionary X-2 design that was designed to overcome the 200-knot speed limit of most helicopters as a result of a phenomenon called the dissymmetry of lift. It is to fly in 2017 and will be evaluated by the Army for further development. Sikorsky is leading the development of phase one with an aircraft based on their previous Sikorsky X2 design. The design will have a cruise speed of 250 kn (290 mph; 460 km/h), but less range due to using the "old" T55 engine. A new engine (the future affordable turbine engine (FATE) like on the V-280) would meet the range requirement of 229 nmi (264 mi; 424 km) Compared to conventional helicopters, the counter-rotating coaxial main rotors and pusher propeller offer a 185 km/h (115 mph) speed increase, combat radius extended by 60%, and performs 50% better in high-hot hover performance. Sikorsky has said that the X2 design is not suitable for heavy-lift size, and instead suggests the CH-53K for heavy-lift and tiltrotor for the ultra-class. However, Sikorsky plans to build the 30,000 lb-class JMR-TD (with a cabin 50% larger than the Black Hawk) at full scale to remove doubts about the scalability of the X-2 technology.

The SB-1 will be quick and nimble, with fast acceleration and deceleration, side-to-side movement, and hovering with the tail up and nose down.[34] The Defiant demonstrator will be powered by the Honeywell T55, which powers the CH-47 Chinook. It will be slightly modified to better operate at slower speeds down to 85% rpm

The Bell Helicopter design, which is called the V-280 Valor, is an advanced tilt-rotor design that is based upon technology similar to the Bell-Boeing V-22 Osprey. The new tilt-rotor is smaller, faster and much more maneuverable than the Osprey and has a top speed of over 300 knots. The aircraft was officially unveiled at the 2013 Army Aviation Association of America's (AAAA) Annual Professional Forum and Exposition in Fort Worth, Texas, with a projected first flight in 2017.

Future Vertical Lift (FVL) is a plan to develop a family of vehicles that will update military helicopter capabilities. Five different sizes of aircraft are to be developed, sharing common hardware such as sensors, avionics, engines, and countermeasures. The precursor for FVL is the Joint Multi-Role (JMR) helicopter program, which will provide technology demonstrations planned for 2017.

Three sizes were planned in 2009, then four and five (which may or may not be of the same design) are envisioned to replace 25 current rotorcraft types:

JMR-Light: Scout version to replace the OH-58 Kiowa; introduction planned for 2030.
JMR-Medium-Light
JMR-Medium: Utility and attack versions to replace the UH-60 Black Hawk and AH-64 Apache; introduction planned for 2027–28.
JMR-Heavy: Cargo version to replace the CH-47 Chinook; introduction planned for 2035, although Boeing expects 2060.
JMR-Ultra: New ultra-sized version for vertical lift aircraft with performance similar to fixed-wing tactical transport aircraft, such as the C-130J Super Hercules and the Airbus A400M Atlas; introduction planned for 2025.

Hans Rosling and the Improving World

Here are some statistics and answers about the world from a Nature article about Hans Rosling

1. In 1955 there were fewer than one billion children (aged 0-14) in the world. By 2015 there were two billion. About how many children do UN experts estimate there will be in 2100?

The Nature article quoted an answer of Two billion. The number of children in the world is no longer increasing.

However, the population projections are widely variable for 2100 and have been trending higher. However, the estimate for the number of children (0-14) is still 2 billion despite an overall boost in the middle of the medium estimate going up 350 million.

World population projections have increased in recent years because the birthrate in Africa is not decreasing as quickly as projected





The population levels projected in the medium variant are an outcome of the substantial projected declines in fertility. According to the medium variant of the 2015 Revision, global fertility is projected to fall from 2.5 children per woman in 2010-2015 to 2.4 in 2025-2030 and 2.0 in 2095-2100. Steep reductions are projected for the least developed countries, from 4.3 in 2010-2015 to 3.5 in 2025-2030 and 2.1 in 2095-2100. However, for countries with high fertility there is significant uncertainty in the projection of fertility, even in the 15-year horizon of the post-2015 development agenda, and more so in the long-term projection to 2100. Slower-than-projected fertility declines would result in much higher population totals in all subsequent time periods. For example, a scenario in which all countries had a fertility rate that was consistently half a child higher than in the medium variant would produce a population of 16.6 billion in 2100, more than 5 billion higher than the medium-variant projection.

According to the 2015 Revision, the world today has 7.3 billion inhabitants and a 95-percent chance of having between 9.5 billion and 13.3 billion in 2100. Furthermore, there is just a 23-percent chance that the world population may peak and start declining before 2100. The median projected population for 2100 is 11.2 billion, meaning that there is a 50/50 chance that the population at century’s end may actually be higher or lower than that number.

The 2015 estimate for 2100 is 350 million more than the 2012 estimate.

Population of 13-17 billion in 2100 is not impossible. It depends upon what happens with fertility in Africa and Asia. This would mean answers of 3 billion or 4 billion people aged 0-14 could happen. But is would likely require 2100 population of 13.5 billion to get to 3 billion children and 17 billion to get to 4 billion.

2. The life expectancy at birth in the UK is 81 years. What is the life expectancy at birth in the world as a whole?
The Nature article quoted an answer of 70 years. There has been a 10-year rise in life expectancy in the past 50 years.

From the UN 2015 population revision - Globally, life expectancy at birth is projected to rise from 70 years in 2010-2015 to 77 years in 2045-2050 and to 83 years in 2095-2100. Africa is projected to gain about 19 years of life expectancy by the end of the century, reaching 70 years in 2045-2050 and 78 years in 2095-2100. Such increases are contingent on further reductions in the spread of HIV, and combating successfully other infectious as well as non-communicable diseases. Both Asia and Latin America and the Caribbean are projected to gain 13-14 years of life expectancy by 2095-2100, while Europe, Northern America and Oceania are projected to gain 10-11 years.

3. Globally, men aged 25 and older have spent about 8 years in school on average. How many years have women in the same age group spent in school?
The Nature article quoted an answer of - Between 1970 and 2009, the number increased from 3.5 to 7.1 years.

4. Roughly what percentage of the world's one-year-old children is vaccinated against measles?
The Nature article quoted an answer of -The World Health Organization calculates that about 85% of children have been vaccinated against measles. We gave you the points if you rounded up or down.

5. Roughly what percentage of the world’s population has electricity at home?
The Nature article quoted an answer of - Again, nearly 85% of homes have electricity worldwide.

6. Roughly what percentage of the girls in the world attend primary school (first 4-6 years of school)?
The Nature article quoted an answer of 90%. The number of children who never have the benefits of primary education fell steadily between 2000 and 2007. The proportion has continued to fall since then, but much more slowly. In 2014, the out-of-school rate was 9%.

7. In the past 20 years, the proportion of the world population living in extreme poverty has roughly…
The Nature article quoted an answer of Decreased by half. According to the most recent estimates, 10% of the world’s population lives on less than US$1.90 per day, down from 35% in 1990.

8. In 1965, the number of babies born per woman in the world, on average, was five. What do you think the number is today?
The Nature article quoted an answer of -2.5. The world’s declining fertility rate is one of the most astounding shifts in recent history.


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