Barriers to commercializing high-quality nanomaterials useful for an array of applications could tumble because of a process invented at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. NanoFermentation represents a fundamentally new approach for producing extremely fine, uniform and highly crystalline powders useful for magnetic media, ferrofluids, xerographic toner, catalysts, pigments, water treatment and coatings. The process works at or near room temperature using conventional industrial equipment and straightforward fermentation processes. Furthermore, NanoFermentation uses bacterial strains that are completely natural instead of those that have been genetically engineered. Patent holders Tommy Phelps and Bob Lauf believe that by making tailored nanomaterials available in economic quantities, their process will help stimulate interest in the development of new applications and eliminate a roadblock that has prevented the field of nanotechnology from reaching its potential.