/** Font Awesome 4 Compatibility **/ .fa{font-style:normal;font-variant:normal;font-weight:normal;font-family:FontAwesome;} /** UberMenu Responsive Styles (Breakpoint Setting) **/ @media screen and (min-width: 871px){ .ubermenu{ display:block !important; } .ubermenu-responsive .ubermenu-item.ubermenu-hide-desktop{ display:none !important; } .ubermenu-responsive.ubermenu-retractors-responsive .ubermenu-retractor-mobile{ display:none; } /* Force current submenu always open but below others */ .ubermenu-force-current-submenu .ubermenu-item-level-0.ubermenu-current-menu-item > .ubermenu-submenu-drop, .ubermenu-force-current-submenu .ubermenu-item-level-0.ubermenu-current-menu-ancestor > .ubermenu-submenu-drop { display: block!important; opacity: 1!important; visibility: visible!important; margin: 0!important; top: auto!important; height: auto; z-index:19; } /* Invert Horizontal menu to make subs go up */ .ubermenu-invert.ubermenu-horizontal .ubermenu-item-level-0 > .ubermenu-submenu-drop{ top:auto; bottom:100%; } .ubermenu-invert.ubermenu-horizontal.ubermenu-sub-indicators .ubermenu-item-level-0.ubermenu-has-submenu-drop > .ubermenu-target > .ubermenu-sub-indicator{ transform:rotate(180deg); } /* Make second level flyouts fly up */ .ubermenu-invert.ubermenu-horizontal .ubermenu-submenu .ubermenu-item.ubermenu-active > .ubermenu-submenu-type-flyout{ top:auto; bottom:0; } /* Clip the submenus properly when inverted */ .ubermenu-invert.ubermenu-horizontal .ubermenu-item-level-0 > .ubermenu-submenu-drop{ clip: rect(-5000px,5000px,auto,-5000px); } /* Invert Vertical menu to make subs go left */ .ubermenu-invert.ubermenu-vertical .ubermenu-item-level-0 > .ubermenu-submenu-drop{ right:100%; left:auto; } .ubermenu-invert.ubermenu-vertical.ubermenu-sub-indicators .ubermenu-item-level-0.ubermenu-item-has-children > .ubermenu-target > .ubermenu-sub-indicator{ right:auto; left:10px; transform:rotate(90deg); } .ubermenu-vertical.ubermenu-invert .ubermenu-item > .ubermenu-submenu-drop { clip: rect(-5000px,5000px,5000px,-5000px); } /* Vertical Flyout > Flyout */ .ubermenu-vertical.ubermenu-invert.ubermenu-sub-indicators .ubermenu-has-submenu-drop > .ubermenu-target{ padding-left:25px; } .ubermenu-vertical.ubermenu-invert .ubermenu-item > .ubermenu-target > .ubermenu-sub-indicator { right:auto; left:10px; transform:rotate(90deg); } .ubermenu-vertical.ubermenu-invert .ubermenu-item > .ubermenu-submenu-drop.ubermenu-submenu-type-flyout, .ubermenu-vertical.ubermenu-invert .ubermenu-submenu-type-flyout > .ubermenu-item > .ubermenu-submenu-drop { right: 100%; left: auto; } .ubermenu-responsive-toggle{ display:none; } } @media screen and (max-width: 870px){ .ubermenu-responsive-toggle, .ubermenu-sticky-toggle-wrapper { display: block; } .ubermenu-responsive{ width:100%; max-height:500px; visibility:visible; overflow:visible; -webkit-transition:max-height 1s ease-in; transition:max-height .3s ease-in; } .ubermenu-responsive.ubermenu-items-align-center{ text-align:left; } .ubermenu-responsive.ubermenu{ margin:0; } .ubermenu-responsive.ubermenu .ubermenu-nav{ display:block; } .ubermenu-responsive.ubermenu-responsive-nocollapse, .ubermenu-repsonsive.ubermenu-no-transitions{ display:block; max-height:none; } .ubermenu-responsive.ubermenu-responsive-collapse{ max-height:none; visibility:visible; overflow:visible; } .ubermenu-responsive.ubermenu-responsive-collapse{ max-height:0; overflow:hidden !important; visibility:hidden; } .ubermenu-responsive.ubermenu-in-transition, .ubermenu-responsive.ubermenu-in-transition .ubermenu-nav{ overflow:hidden !important; visibility:visible; } .ubermenu-responsive.ubermenu-responsive-collapse:not(.ubermenu-in-transition){ border-top-width:0; border-bottom-width:0; } .ubermenu-responsive.ubermenu-responsive-collapse .ubermenu-item .ubermenu-submenu{ display:none; } .ubermenu-responsive .ubermenu-item-level-0{ width:50%; } .ubermenu-responsive.ubermenu-responsive-single-column .ubermenu-item-level-0{ float:none; clear:both; width:100%; } .ubermenu-responsive .ubermenu-item.ubermenu-item-level-0 > .ubermenu-target{ border:none; box-shadow:none; } .ubermenu-responsive .ubermenu-item.ubermenu-has-submenu-flyout{ position:static; } .ubermenu-responsive.ubermenu-sub-indicators .ubermenu-submenu-type-flyout .ubermenu-has-submenu-drop > .ubermenu-target > .ubermenu-sub-indicator{ transform:rotate(0); right:10px; left:auto; } .ubermenu-responsive .ubermenu-nav .ubermenu-item .ubermenu-submenu.ubermenu-submenu-drop{ width:100%; min-width:100%; max-width:100%; top:auto; left:0 !important; } .ubermenu-responsive.ubermenu-has-border .ubermenu-nav .ubermenu-item .ubermenu-submenu.ubermenu-submenu-drop{ left: -1px !important; /* For borders */ } .ubermenu-responsive .ubermenu-submenu.ubermenu-submenu-type-mega > .ubermenu-item.ubermenu-column{ min-height:0; border-left:none; float:left; /* override left/center/right content alignment */ display:block; } .ubermenu-responsive .ubermenu-item.ubermenu-active > .ubermenu-submenu.ubermenu-submenu-type-mega{ max-height:none; height:auto;/*prevent overflow scrolling since android is still finicky*/ overflow:visible; } .ubermenu-responsive.ubermenu-transition-slide .ubermenu-item.ubermenu-in-transition > .ubermenu-submenu-drop{ max-height:1000px; /* because of slide transition */ } .ubermenu .ubermenu-submenu-type-flyout .ubermenu-submenu-type-mega{ min-height:0; } .ubermenu.ubermenu-responsive .ubermenu-column, .ubermenu.ubermenu-responsive .ubermenu-column-auto{ min-width:50%; } .ubermenu.ubermenu-responsive .ubermenu-autoclear > .ubermenu-column{ clear:none; } .ubermenu.ubermenu-responsive .ubermenu-column:nth-of-type(2n+1){ clear:both; } .ubermenu.ubermenu-responsive .ubermenu-submenu-retractor-top:not(.ubermenu-submenu-retractor-top-2) .ubermenu-column:nth-of-type(2n+1){ clear:none; } .ubermenu.ubermenu-responsive .ubermenu-submenu-retractor-top:not(.ubermenu-submenu-retractor-top-2) .ubermenu-column:nth-of-type(2n+2){ clear:both; } .ubermenu-responsive-single-column-subs .ubermenu-submenu .ubermenu-item { float: none; clear: both; width: 100%; min-width: 100%; } .ubermenu.ubermenu-responsive .ubermenu-tabs, .ubermenu.ubermenu-responsive .ubermenu-tabs-group, .ubermenu.ubermenu-responsive .ubermenu-tab, .ubermenu.ubermenu-responsive .ubermenu-tab-content-panel{ /** TABS SHOULD BE 100% ACCORDION */ width:100%; min-width:100%; max-width:100%; left:0; } .ubermenu.ubermenu-responsive .ubermenu-tabs, .ubermenu.ubermenu-responsive .ubermenu-tab-content-panel{ min-height:0 !important;/* Override Inline Style from JS */ } .ubermenu.ubermenu-responsive .ubermenu-tabs{ z-index:15; } .ubermenu.ubermenu-responsive .ubermenu-tab-content-panel{ z-index:20; } /* Tab Layering */ .ubermenu-responsive .ubermenu-tab{ position:relative; } .ubermenu-responsive .ubermenu-tab.ubermenu-active{ position:relative; z-index:20; } .ubermenu-responsive .ubermenu-tab > .ubermenu-target{ border-width:0 0 1px 0; } .ubermenu-responsive.ubermenu-sub-indicators .ubermenu-tabs > .ubermenu-tabs-group > .ubermenu-tab.ubermenu-has-submenu-drop > .ubermenu-target > .ubermenu-sub-indicator{ transform:rotate(0); right:10px; left:auto; } .ubermenu-responsive .ubermenu-tabs > .ubermenu-tabs-group > .ubermenu-tab > .ubermenu-tab-content-panel{ top:auto; border-width:1px; } .ubermenu-responsive .ubermenu-tab-layout-bottom > .ubermenu-tabs-group{ /*position:relative;*/ } .ubermenu-reponsive .ubermenu-item-level-0 > .ubermenu-submenu-type-stack{ /* Top Level Stack Columns */ position:relative; } .ubermenu-responsive .ubermenu-submenu-type-stack .ubermenu-column, .ubermenu-responsive .ubermenu-submenu-type-stack .ubermenu-column-auto{ /* Stack Columns */ width:100%; max-width:100%; } .ubermenu-responsive .ubermenu-item-mini{ /* Mini items */ min-width:0; width:auto; float:left; clear:none !important; } .ubermenu-responsive .ubermenu-item.ubermenu-item-mini > a.ubermenu-target{ padding-left:20px; padding-right:20px; } .ubermenu-responsive .ubermenu-item.ubermenu-hide-mobile{ /* Hiding items */ display:none !important; } .ubermenu-responsive.ubermenu-hide-bkgs .ubermenu-submenu.ubermenu-submenu-bkg-img{ /** Hide Background Images in Submenu */ background-image:none; } .ubermenu.ubermenu-responsive .ubermenu-item-level-0.ubermenu-item-mini{ min-width:0; width:auto; } .ubermenu-vertical .ubermenu-item.ubermenu-item-level-0{ width:100%; } .ubermenu-vertical.ubermenu-sub-indicators .ubermenu-item-level-0.ubermenu-item-has-children > .ubermenu-target > .ubermenu-sub-indicator{ right:10px; left:auto; transform:rotate(0); } .ubermenu-vertical .ubermenu-item.ubermenu-item-level-0.ubermenu-relative.ubermenu-active > .ubermenu-submenu-drop.ubermenu-submenu-align-vertical_parent_item{ top:auto; } .ubermenu.ubermenu-responsive .ubermenu-tabs{ position:static; } /* Tabs on Mobile with mouse (but not click) - leave space to hover off */ .ubermenu:not(.ubermenu-is-mobile):not(.ubermenu-submenu-indicator-closes) .ubermenu-submenu .ubermenu-tab[data-ubermenu-trigger="mouseover"] .ubermenu-tab-content-panel, .ubermenu:not(.ubermenu-is-mobile):not(.ubermenu-submenu-indicator-closes) .ubermenu-submenu .ubermenu-tab[data-ubermenu-trigger="hover_intent"] .ubermenu-tab-content-panel{ margin-left:6%; width:94%; min-width:94%; } /* Sub indicator close visibility */ .ubermenu.ubermenu-submenu-indicator-closes .ubermenu-active > .ubermenu-target > .ubermenu-sub-indicator-close{ display:block; } .ubermenu.ubermenu-submenu-indicator-closes .ubermenu-active > .ubermenu-target > .ubermenu-sub-indicator{ display:none; } .ubermenu-responsive-toggle{ display:block; } } @media screen and (max-width: 480px){ .ubermenu.ubermenu-responsive .ubermenu-item-level-0{ width:100%; } .ubermenu.ubermenu-responsive .ubermenu-column, .ubermenu.ubermenu-responsive .ubermenu-column-auto{ min-width:100%; } .ubermenu .ubermenu-autocolumn:not(:first-child), .ubermenu .ubermenu-autocolumn:not(:first-child) .ubermenu-submenu-type-stack{ padding-top:0; } .ubermenu .ubermenu-autocolumn:not(:last-child), .ubermenu .ubermenu-autocolumn:not(:last-child) .ubermenu-submenu-type-stack{ padding-bottom:0; } .ubermenu .ubermenu-autocolumn > .ubermenu-submenu-type-stack > .ubermenu-item-normal:first-child{ margin-top:0; } } /** UberMenu Custom Menu Styles (Customizer) **/ /* main */ .ubermenu-main { margin-bottom:0px; } .ubermenu.ubermenu-main { background:none; border:none; box-shadow:none; } .ubermenu.ubermenu-main .ubermenu-item-level-0 > .ubermenu-target { border:none; box-shadow:none; } .ubermenu.ubermenu-main.ubermenu-horizontal .ubermenu-submenu-drop.ubermenu-submenu-align-left_edge_bar, .ubermenu.ubermenu-main.ubermenu-horizontal .ubermenu-submenu-drop.ubermenu-submenu-align-full_width { left:0; } .ubermenu.ubermenu-main.ubermenu-horizontal .ubermenu-item-level-0.ubermenu-active > .ubermenu-submenu-drop, .ubermenu.ubermenu-main.ubermenu-horizontal:not(.ubermenu-transition-shift) .ubermenu-item-level-0 > .ubermenu-submenu-drop { margin-top:0; } .ubermenu-responsive-toggle.ubermenu-responsive-toggle-main { background:#254c75; } /* top2 */ .ubermenu-top2 { margin-top:20px;; margin-bottom:20px;; } .ubermenu.ubermenu-top2:not(.ubermenu-responsive-collapse) { max-height:1400px; } .ubermenu.ubermenu-top2 { background:none; border:none; box-shadow:none; } .ubermenu.ubermenu-top2 .ubermenu-item-level-0 > .ubermenu-target { border:none; box-shadow:none; } .ubermenu.ubermenu-top2.ubermenu-horizontal .ubermenu-submenu-drop.ubermenu-submenu-align-left_edge_bar, .ubermenu.ubermenu-top2.ubermenu-horizontal .ubermenu-submenu-drop.ubermenu-submenu-align-full_width { left:0; } .ubermenu.ubermenu-top2.ubermenu-horizontal .ubermenu-item-level-0.ubermenu-active > .ubermenu-submenu-drop, .ubermenu.ubermenu-top2.ubermenu-horizontal:not(.ubermenu-transition-shift) .ubermenu-item-level-0 > .ubermenu-submenu-drop { margin-top:0; } .ubermenu.ubermenu-top2 .ubermenu-item-level-0:hover > .ubermenu-target, .ubermenu-top2 .ubermenu-item-level-0.ubermenu-active > .ubermenu-target { background:#254c75; } .ubermenu-top2 .ubermenu-item-level-0.ubermenu-current-menu-item > .ubermenu-target, .ubermenu-top2 .ubermenu-item-level-0.ubermenu-current-menu-parent > .ubermenu-target, .ubermenu-top2 .ubermenu-item-level-0.ubermenu-current-menu-ancestor > .ubermenu-target { background:#254c75; } .ubermenu-top2 .ubermenu-item.ubermenu-item-level-0 > .ubermenu-highlight { background:#254c75; } /** UberMenu Custom Menu Item Styles (Menu Item Settings) **/ /* 155305 */ .ubermenu .ubermenu-submenu.ubermenu-submenu-id-155305 { width:270px; min-width:270px; } /** UberMenu Custom Tweaks (General Settings) **/ /* adjust logo size */ #menu-item-155304 .ubermenu-image { max-width: 250px; } /* take away logo from background */ #menu-item-155304 > .ubermenu-target { background: none; } /* adjust category images */ #ubermenu-main-9147-primary-menu-2 .ubermenu-item-level-0 > .ubermenu-target { padding: 0px; background: none; } /* newsletter submenu zindex */ #ubermenu-top2-9146-secondary-menu-2 { z-index: 101; } /* adjust right menu items */ #ubermenu-top2-9146-secondary-menu-2 .ubermenu-item-level-0.ubermenu-align-right .ubermenu-target { margin-top: 20px; } /* adjust category thumbnails */ @media only screen and (min-width: 401px) and (max-width: 870px) { #ubermenu-nav-main-9147-primary-menu .ubermenu-item-level-0 { max-width: 20% !important; } .ubermenu.ubermenu-responsive > #ubermenu-nav-main-9147-primary-menu > .ubermenu-column { min-width: 20%; } } @media only screen and (max-width: 400px) { #ubermenu-nav-main-9147-primary-menu .ubermenu-item-level-0 { max-width: 50%; } .ubermenu.ubermenu-responsive > #ubermenu-nav-main-9147-primary-menu > .ubermenu-column { min-width: 50%; } #ubermenu-nav-main-9147-primary-menu { background: #254c75; } } /** UberMenu Custom Tweaks - Mobile **/ @media screen and (max-width:870px){ /* adjust logo on mobile */ #menu-item-155304 .ubermenu-image { margin: 0 auto; } #menu-item-155304 .ubermenu-target { border-bottom: none !important; } /* hide right menu items */ #ubermenu-top2-9146-secondary-menu-2 .ubermenu-item-level-0.ubermenu-align-right .ubermenu-target { display: none; } /* text links */ @media only screen and (max-width: 870px) { #ubermenu-nav-main-9147-primary-menu .ubermenu-item-level-0 { max-width: 50%; } .ubermenu.ubermenu-responsive > #ubermenu-nav-main-9147-primary-menu > .ubermenu-hide-desktop { min-width: 50%; font-size: 20px; padding: 10px; } .ubermenu.ubermenu-responsive > #ubermenu-nav-main-9147-primary-menu > .ubermenu-hide-desktop > .ubermenu-target { border: none; } } } /** UberMenu Custom Tweaks - Desktop **/ @media screen and (min-width:871px){ header.main-header { padding: 0px !important; } } /* Status: Loaded from Transient */

Inexpensive, universal, super nanoglue

A new method allows a self-assembled molecular nanolayer to become a powerful nanoglue by “hooking” together any two surfaces that normally don’t stick well.

Unprotected, a nanolayer (green ball: silicon, blue: sulphur, red: carbon, white: hydrogen) would degrade or detach from a surface when heated to 400 degrees Celsius. But when topped with a thin copper film that binds strongly with the nanolayer, heat causes the nanolayer to form strong chemical bonds to the silica underlayer — hooking or gluing the copper-silica “sandwich” together. This technique produces a sevenfold increase of the thin film sandwich’s adhesion strength and allows the nanolayer to withstand temperatures of at least 700 degrees Celsius. Both features are unexpected and unprecedented. This new ability to bond together nearly any two surfaces using nanolayers will benefit nanoelectronics and computer chip manufacturing. Other envisioned applications include coatings for turbines and jet engines, and adhesives for high-heat environments.

Because of their small size, these enhanced nanolayers will likely be useful as adhesives in a wide assortment of micro- and nanoelectronic devices where thicker adhesive layers just won’t fit.

Another unprecedented aspect of Ramanath’s discovery is that the sandwiched nanolayers continue to strengthen up to temperatures as high as 700 degrees Celsius. The ability of these adhesive nanolayers to withstand and grow stronger with heat could have novel industrial uses, such as holding paint on hot surfaces like the inside of a jet engine or a huge power plant turbine.

“The molecular glue is inexpensive – 100 grams cost about $35 – and already commercially available, which makes our method well-suited to today’s marketplace. Our method can definitely be scaled up to meet the low-cost demands of a large manufacturer,” he said.

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