Wind, Nuclear Power in 2008

Global wind energy capacity grew by 28.8% last year,
even higher than the average over the past decade, to reach total global installations of more than 120.8 GW [260 TWh/year] at the end of 2008, according to the Global Wind Energy Council. More than 27 GW of new wind power generation capacity came online in 2008, 36% more than in 2007. $46.8 billion was spent on wind turbines in 2008, which does not include the costs for site work and grid upgrades to install the wind power. $46.8 billion to get 58 TWh/year of more power, which does not include the non-turbine costs. A ballpark estimate is to double the cost of the turbines to get to the full installed cost.

Global electricity generation for 2007 was 19,895 TWh. The 2008 wind power would be 1.3% of that total.

World nuclear power generation is about 2600 TWh/year from 372 GWe Another 43 reactors that would generate 38 GW is under construction now. The reactors under construction would add about 260-310 TWh/year in power as they are completed over the next 1-6 years. 7-8 GW of nuclear power would equal the 27 GW of wind.

To equal the 2008 wind power costs, would be $6 billion for the straight nuclear plant costs for 8 GWe of nuclear power and $12 billion for the fully installed costs.

A 2008 levelized cost estimate for energy by Lazard

US energy subsidies.

China is building nuclear power for only $1565 per kilowatt.

0 thoughts on “Wind, Nuclear Power in 2008”

  1. Bajoran is onto the real explanation for everything.With the invention of the replicators and nuclear fusion power(whose energy output dwarfs that of all the energy sources we have including nuclear fission) it meant an endless supply of clean,infinitly renewable cheap power availible to the masses as well as an endless food water and products supply poverty was ended forever since anyone could have anyhting at anytime.Also since economies have always been dependant on energy ie oil and gas money became obselete and so trading on earth was only done if entirely neccessary.This is why world peace was eventually achieved since economics dissapered and the relisation that humans werent alone in the universe the anthropocentric view we had over the earth and each other dissapeared as well.People devoted there lives to self improvement.Some members of the federation are capitalist and some are not.for those that arnet they have special committees that have budgets dealing with capitalist planets/nations.On earth there system is a mixture of both capitalism and socilism in that people can choose what they want they want to do unlike in Stalinist Russia and Maoist China but its done for social benifit rather than personal profit(In the original series this was not directly referenced or mentioned as the idea of a society with socialist/communist undertones would have had it cancelled as it was the 1960s – i mean people even freaked in the southern states when Kirk kissed Urhuru).The prime directive states that the federation cant interfere with the natural development species planets as it would end up in the same war and chaos seen between for example the native americans and the pilgrims from europe and the conquistadors and maya/aztecs.They dont interfere with less advanced races the same reason the vulcans didnt interfere with humans upon discovering them or shared technology because the vulcans revealed themselves to the humans or gave them technology(they discovered humanity in the 1950s – during the cold war – before many other conflicts)when humans were immature there would be the risk that humans would use the technology against themselves.Upon first contact humans become peaceful realising that war amongst each other was pointless given that this was after WW3.Applicant members require 1)A one world government
    2)faster than light travel amongst others; and have ten years to meet these and other conditions before they are accepted or rejected(wherby they can choose to reapply) Yes the maquis are examples of rouge elements in the federation but the federation is largely peaceful when dealing with other planets(with the exception of the Borg who cant be reasoned with at all).As for the Q they too dont interfere with lesser beings as they would shift the balance of power in the mortal races(just like many mythologies of the greeks,romans).Whats interesting about the q is that they show that the polytheism of many cultures eg.egyptians,mayans and aforementioned romans and greeks amongst others is more likely than monotheism in terms of biology.They are gods that are the result of millions(maybe billions) of years of natural selection/evolution(eat your heart out Richard Dawkins.They reproduce sexually like polythestic gods rather than a single god(like in the bible and koran)rather than just popping into existence and are just as prone to cyniscm and aragonance as the mortals(they are morally grey rather than black and white – some of the are reffered in novels to be not as condescending as the q we see in the series) and as seen in Voyagers Deathwish the they suffer from the universal fear of the unknown….. death!There is also a hint of native american,mayan and other so called “primative” cultures of earth attributes to them as…well this part delves into string theory,m-theory and quantum mechanics but all of these aformentioned cultures believed that time was eternal(due to the existence of an infinite number of universes) and moved unlike the linear thinking that we today do(and even picard as seen in all good thing… “Seven Years?Oh how little do you mortals really understand time why must you be so linear Jean Luc?”)Many people (including Michio Kaku and his views on the Kardeschenev Scale (sorry if i misspelled it))see the future of mankinds evolution evolution wrong.You see the q believed humanity and other races to be inferior because they were reliant so much on technology and that it was the ability for the q to do whatever they could with the power of their highly evolved minds that led them to this conclusion(looking on humanity as humans would chimpazees and other apes etc.).This is why the q didnt want humanity to leave earth for the limited reaches of space(it is implied in deathwish when janeway and co are brought to the continuum that the q had evolved to their point before even leaving their own solar system) because if they eventually mapped out all the galaxies and planets still its only one universe there are a gazillion other ones to discover.thats what star trek is about possibilities as a humanist rodennberry started the series because as implied by q’s exit the trials of humanity will never end.One day hopefully humanity themselves will evolve to something like the q or greater and take there place thus ensuring the eternal cycle continues.Also of note since the q can travel forward in time his line “youll find out…” implies he might already know that this will occur.

  2. Is the owner of this Blog, a follower of Mises Institute, Ayn Rand or Rockwell?

    is that why you keep removing my comments?

    what’s wrong? dont like that im telling people the truth and helopug them so they’re on to your propagandizing of Star Trek as a model to further your perverse economic theory to try to brainwash these visitors?

    if so, a
    WARNING – to those visitors that are vulnerably unaware of what you’re being subtly indoctrinated to believe.

    Socialists are not Fascists.
    Socialists and Communists are mortal enemies of Fascists.

    Fascists love Capitalism used in its most extreme expression to exploit and abuse the weak, sick and poverty-stricken and destroy them.

    Ron Paul’s disciples, most Libertarians, Anarcho-Capitalists (Shock Capitalists) and Right-wing Neo-cons, are quite interested in distorting well established, objectively proven and irrefutable facts surrounding well known historical events of the 20th Century, to their own sinister agendas.
    this is “Negation Historical Revisionism.” the deliberate distortion, changing, altering of accurately and objectively stated facts of historical events into something contrary and deceptive in order to affect a desired change in society’s views and opinions toward any range of opposing groups, organizations or social movements, in order to either diminish, weaken or demonize them so as to destroy their political or social power.

    another term for this is “Propaganda”

    this “Negation Historical Revisionism” is well known, very recently, to have similarly been a popular tool for “Holocaust Denial” by Neo-Nazis who called themselves intellectuals, believe it or not, and used Negation Revisionist History to deny the Holocaust ever happened usually, as well as other times either diminish severity of the suffering of “Non-Aryans” or even claim that it was Nazi Germans that suffered genocide or extremely harsh cruelty by American soldiers.
    this sounds extraordinarily like O’Reilly Factor type propaganda.
    Bill O’Reilly mentality at it again, as Keith Olbermann would say.

    these disciples are followers of the Mises Institute, Rockwell (not Norman Rockwell) and Ayn Rand. these entities, disguised as “Libertarianism”, further their propagandized brainwashing, taking full advantage of the intellectually uninformed vulnerability of the unsuspecting young “Myspace-GameBoy-iPod Generation”, that either cant even find Iraq or Germany on a map or went to poorly funded public schools or home-schooled in the past 17 years without properly, objectively learning 20th century history, possibly not even in an unbiased way but perhaps in a purely Right-wing atmosphere.

    one of the Rockwell-Mises Institute’s latest “Twilight Zone” “Unreality-based” realities of propaganda, that distorts well established, objectively proven and irrefutable facts surrounding well known historical events is the very recent claim they spew that the Nazis and Adolph Hitler were Socialists, instead of the Corporatist State-Capitalist Right-wing socio-economic system that they were.

    they do this to exonerate the Right-wing and Corporatists of the Bush-Cheney regime of any wrong-doing whilst demonizing Social Democrats and Socialists, by associating them with one of the most diabolical figures of history, Adolph Hitler, who purposefully used deceptive language in speech to brainwash the masses to believe lies.
    certainly by now, Neo-Nazis learned by past mistakes, they have to be ever so cunning + sneaky. never obvious or deliberate.

    Ron Paul claims to be anti-Corporation and Pro-workers’ freedom while all the while he’s a type of Fascist in sheep’s clothing, posing as one who would free the exploited workers and Middle Class of their struggles by less government, even fewer laws and no government over cite of corporate operations is his key to prosperity.
    this is precisely what Adolph Hitler preached, while all the while he had a completely different agenda, as we all know.

    well, not all of us know this. only those of us born before 1984, apparently.

    Orwell’s 1984 is an appropriate segway into what the Bush-Cheney regime and the Right-wing is attempting to bring us toward with the surveillance acts they’ve passed and trying to expand to spy on us all, like Big Brother in 1984.
    Ron Paul would inevitably realize he’d necessarily need to expand this surveillance beyond what even Bush has achieved, if he wanted to crush all political dissent resulting from the mass poverty he’d bring on us all to finish what Bush-Cheney didnt.

    with each successive generation, there’s a kind of “collective amnesia”.

    tendency toward both forgetting to teach the next generation important ethics, common sense + lessons from times gone before, as an apathetic reaction to the younger generation’s stubbornly immature lack of interest.
    similarly, tendency to forget to pass to the young, memories + experiences both shocking + verbose, of important world events + lessons learned. the unfortunate result is pure ignorance and apathy of the youth.
    under these conditions, history will sadly repeat itself.

    Scholars, regard fascism as a radical movement with ideological ties to an extreme form of Conservatism inspired by a 19th-century backlash against the ideals of the Enlightenment. Deeply irrational, fear of Communist revolution and Liberal Left electoral victories.

    Fascists’ well-known opportunism—i.e., willingness to make changes in “official party positions” in order to win elections or consolidate power. Scholars stressed fascism’s defense of “extreme capitalism” and “wealthy aristocratic elitism.”

    It is possible to identify characteristics that fascist movements have in common.

    Common Fascist characteristics » Conservative economic programs

    economics of fascists were extremely Conservative, favoring wealthy instead of middle class and working class. Their talk of National “Socialism” was quite fraudulent. some workers were duped by it before the fascists came to power, most remained loyal to anti-fascist parties of the left. As historian John Weiss noted, “Property, income distribution and class structure remained the same under fascist rule. What changes there were favored elites or certain party leadership.” Historian Roger Eatwell concurred: “If a revolution is understood to mean a significant shift in class relations, including a redistribution of income and wealth, there was no Nazi revolution.”

    Mussolini, became a fierce anti-Communist after the war. After power, he banned all Communist organizations and replaced worker unions with Corporatist unions. Until he instituted a war economy, Mussolini allowed industrialists to run companies with minimum interference. he cut taxes on business, permitted cartel growth, wage reduction and rescinded the eight-hour-workday law. Between 1928 and 1932 real wages in Italy dropped by almost half. Mussolini admitted standard of living had fallen but stated that “fortunately the people were not accustomed to eating much and therefore feel the privation less acutely than others.”

    Though Hitler claimed the Nazi Party was more “socialist” than rivals, he opposed any Communist-inspired nationalization of industries. He abolished all unions and minister of labor, Robert Ley, declared it necessary “to restore absolute leadership to the natural leader of the factory, the owner.” Nazi “anti-capitalism,” such as it was, was aimed at Jewish capitalism; non-Jewish capitalists were allowed to keep their companies and wealth, a distinction in the Nazi Party’s original program and never changed. Hitler reduced unemployment, most workers were forced to toil for lower wages, longer hours and worse conditions than during the Weimar Republic. His solution to unemployment depended on recruitment of thousands of men into the military.

    Common Fascist characteristics » Corporatism

    fascist economic theory corporatism called for organizing each sectors of industry, agriculture, professions and arts into private management cartels-controlled unions and employer associations, or “corporations,” each would negotiate labor contracts, working conditions and represent interests of professions in a larger assembly of corporations, or “corporatist parliament.” Corporatist institutions replace organizations of workers and employers and corporatist parliament would replace or exist alongside, representative and legislative bodies. corporatist model represented a “3rd way”, cooperation of workers and employers. In practice, fascist corporatism was used to destroy labor movements and suppress political dissent.

    Common Fascist characteristics » Alleged Equality of Status

    In political discourse of fascist right, economic problems related to large disparities of wealth between rich and poor were treated as problems of status and prejudice. Rather than narrowing class differences, they taught these differences were subjective and unimportant. National “socialism” was said to occur when a Hitler Youth from rich family and Hitler Youth from poor family became friends; no wealth shared. This socialism was outgrowth of Nazis’ attempt to transfer military values to civilian life: In war it did not matter if the soldier next to you came from poor or wealthy background as long as he fought loyally.

    Common Fascist characteristics » Imperialism

    Fascists had imperialistic aims. Hitler hoped his Drang nach Osten (“drive toward the east”), by conquering eastern Europe and Russia, would not only prove racial superiority of Aryans over Slavs but provide enough plunder and Lebensraum (“living space”) to overcome continuing economic difficulties at home.

    Common Fascist characteristics » Military values

    Fascists favored military values such as obedience to authority, discipline and physical strength. They adapted outward trappings of military, such as uniforms and Roman salutes. Hitler imagined a God who presided over military conflicts and ensured the Survival of the Fittest.

    Common Fascist Characteristics » Opposition to Communism

    Fascists made no secret of hatred of Socialists and Communists of all stripes, Totalitarian to Social Democrats. Fascists promised to deal more “firmly” with Socialists and Communists than earlier parties. Mussolini first made reputation by unleashing squads of Blackshirts on striking workers and peasants. Many early Nazis served in Freikorps, paramilitary formed by ex-soldiers to suppress Leftist activism at end of World War I. Nazi SA or Brownshirts clashed regularly with leftists in the streets before 1933, and when Hitler came to power he sent hundreds of Socialists and Communists to concentration camps and intimidated “red” neighborhoods with raids and beatings.

    “elimination of Socialism and Communism and everything resembling it.” “defeat progress of communism by any means necessary,” “We defend the hierarchy of classes.…Everyone knows there will always be social levels, the strong and the weak, rich and poor, governing and governed.” “Our politics are simple. We want a union against Socialism and Communism.”

    Heimwehr in Austria performed same function Freikorps in Germany, volunteer militia battle perceived enemies and Socialists and Communists foe within. Many organized by landed gentry and middle class to counter strikes by workers in the industrial districts of Linz and Steyer. In 1927 violent clashes between Heimwehr and Schutzbund, a socialist defense organization, resulted in many deaths and injuries among the leftists.
    Despite fascists’ violent opposition to Socialism and Communism, some noted similarities between fascism and Soviet communism. Both mass movements, emerged in years following World War I in turmoil and collapse, sought totalitarian systems after they came to power (often concealed totalitarian ambitions beforehand), and both employed terror and violence without scruple when expedient. Scholars cautioned against reading much into similarities, noting fascist regimes (in particular Nazi Germany) used terror for different purposes and against different groups than Soviets and that fascists, unlike Communists, supported Capitalism and defended the interests of economic elites.

    Nationalism or Extreme Patriotism

    Conservatives supported international cooperation and admired elite culture in other countries, fascists espoused extreme nationalism. Fascist ideologues taught national identity was the foundation of individual identity and should not be corrupted by foreign influences, especially left-wing. Nazism condemned Communist and liberal internationalism as threats to unity. Fascists in general wanted to replace internationalist solidarity with nationalist collaboration. Unlike Democratic Conservatives, fascists accused political opponents of being less “patriotic”, sometimes labeling them “traitors.”

    Opposition to Congressional Democracy

    Fascist movements criticized Democracy for allowing Socialists and Communists threat. According to Hitler, democracy undermined natural selection of ruling elites and was “nothing other than systematic cultivation of failure.” Joseph Goebbels, Hitler’s minister of propaganda, maintained the people never rule themselves and that every history-making epoch had been created by aristocrats.

    Before power, Hitler and Mussolini, despite dislike of democracy, were willing to electoral politics and give appearance of Democratic procedures. Although Mussolini insisted he wanted to save Parliament rather than undermine it, the Acerbo Law enabled the Fascists to take control of Parliament the following year and impose a dictatorship.

    Opposition to Liberal Ideas

    Fascists condemned Liberal ideas for placing rights of the individual above the needs of the Volk, encouraging “divisiveness” and tolerating “decadent” values. Fascists accused Liberals of abetting communism.

    Fascist propagandists attacked cultural liberal and Democratic ideas, claiming they encouraged moral relativism, godless materialism and selfish individualism and thereby undermined traditional morality. Anti-Semitic fascists associated Democratic ideas with Jews —indeed, one precursor of Nazism, to succumb to a liberal idea was to succumb to the Jew within oneself.

    Totalitarian ambitions

    Hitler had not revealed the full extent of totalitarian aims before he came to power, as Führer, he attempted not only to control all political power but dominate institutions and organizations previously independent of state, such as courts, churches, universities, social clubs, veterans groups, sports associations and youth groups. German family came under assault, as Hitler Youth were told it was patriotic duty to inform on anti-Nazi parents. Mussolini created billboard slogans “Duce is always right” and “Believe, obey, fight”. Despite efforts, neither Hitler nor Mussolini succeeded in a completely totalitarian regime. Both were driven by competing and heterogeneous groups (played against each other).


    Fascists blamed their countries’ problems on scapegoats. Jews, Freemasons, Socialists, Communists and immigrants prominent among groups demonized. According to fascist propaganda, the long depression of the 1930s resulted less from insufficient government regulation or inadequate purchasing power than from “Judeo-Masonic-bolshevik” conspiracies, left-wing agitation and presence of immigrants. The implication was depriving these demons of power and influence would cause the nation’s major problems to go away.

  3. Well I can agree that Star Trek society is more idealistic – socialistic society, rather than Nazi society. Free education, health care, food etc. for everybody. No more starvation, suffering on planet earth… Real Utopia… However I have never heard of a Civil government (or some civil equivalent), always the Star Fleet is in charge. It seems like this society has a liberal military dictatorship. Strange though…
    Also their appreciation of life sometimes has a strange, over-altruistic side. In one episode in TNG they don’t want to harm the “society” of nanobots, although the entire Enterprise was in danger???? Why they don’t appreciate bacterias as well!!!
    Another issue is that they don’t return fire until their shields are maybe below 40%, and are quietly watching how Enterprise is being bombarded.
    But when the Borgs are coming on stage, all of a sudden they are not so pacifistic. Thats why the popularity is raising after the Borgs.
    Another thing is, that although they don’t have religion (nor gods), they are introducing the Q continuum – immortal, almighty creatures (are they offering the explanation for GOD??!!!).
    Anyway, at least Star Trek is offering a bit more optimistic future, than many other Hollywood productions (Terminator, Alien, The day after tomorrow etc.) Thats why I like it :)))

  4. As I noted with some new references, one can make simplifying arguments and comparisons to get many things to be facist like or like Hitler or like Nazism.

    Reductio ad Hitlerum

    Hitler did X, so X is bad.
    Hitler did not do Y, do Y is good.

    A subtype of the fallacy is the comparison of an opponent’s propositions to the Holocaust. Other variants include comparisons to the Gestapo (the Nazi secret police), to fascism and totalitarianism more generally, and even more vaguely to terrorism.

    Hitler and Stalin had mustaches, Evil Spock had a mustache and beard.

    I think one of the key characteristics to focus on fascists and nazis was does the compared group/thing support and engage in mass killings and genocide of humans/sentient intelligent entities as part of a justified intentional, active policy.

  5. I completely agree with you Brain. Star Trek is in a way the moral bible for atheists :). At least that’s how I like to think of it, since I share most of their views.

    I seriously can’t get it, is it hip now to be a transhumanist but one who criticizes Star Trek & similar SF shows? I also can’t understand how can a show be labeled fascist when it promotes peace and unity and scientific progress instead of war, hate and religion.

    Before you criticize it, think about all that Star Trek has done for us. All those nerds who went on to become scientists :-).

    I’ll always remember this one episode of TNG when they had some aliens on board and they had to bring animals for them to eat. So one of the aliens had a discussion with Riker about meat-eating and Riker told him “We no longer enslave animals for food.” Ha!

  6. DS9 basically took the plot of Babylon 5 and put some Star Trek spin on it. JMS did try to pitch Bablon 5 to Paramount. Are the similarities coincidence ?

    I feel DS9 was the most entertaining and consistently well written of the series. Empire strikes back was also my favorite in the Star Wars series.

    You cannot always keep the same tone across the decades you have to update with the concerns of the day. Like James bond had to be updated.

    In terms of the Borg, they had put some real danger back into Next Gen and DS9. By imasculating the Klingon and Romulans they needed real danger. Dramatic tension.

    If there is no danger it is a bunch of happy people riding around watching a big screen TV at faster than light.

    Star Trek was pacifistic in terms of talking about how important peace was before they put the beat down on some aliens.

    their biggest ratings came with the Borg and best of both Worlds two parter. You repeat what works. Voyager screwed up and made the Borg less dangerous to the Federation. do you always want to watch the Harlem globetrotters beat the Washington Generals ? or a competitive NBA game ?

  7. my impression was that Star Trek society and particularly its is liberal-left to socialist. The original series was produced in the mid 60’s and it reflected the LBJ “great society” paradigm that was in vogue at the time.

    The Next Generation Trek struck me as being 80’s yuppydom in a quasi liberal-left society. However, I thought the Next Generation Enterprise had a more military atmosphere than the original series. Certainly Jean Luc Pickard was more military-like leadership style than did James T. Kirk.

    Star Trek always had kind of an idealistic pacifist orientation to it. Perhaps this is why I always thought of it as being liberal-left.

    However, I heard this changed in the mid to late 90’s. Although I never saw it, I heard that Deep Space 9 became progressively more militant and war-like as the series progressed in its later seasons. I believe the last 2-3 seasons of episodes featured nearly constant conflict and warfare. Also, the more recent aliens (e.g. Borg, Dominion) were of a nature such that they had a far greater inherent hostility towards humans than the humanoid aliens like the Klingons or Cardassians.

    Based on this, I got the impression that the idealistic Star Trek galaxy was degenerating into a more hostile, dangerous galaxy by the time these series ended.

    Perhaps they hired a new generation of screen writers in the mid-late 90’s that were of a more neo-con orientation.

  8. Your welcome. Go ahead and translate. Thanks for the link and spanish distribution.

    thanks to those who Stumbleupon the articles that they like.

  9. The premise of the show was to follow the exploits of a military/science craft. So those who associate all military organizations with fascism are likely to see it as representing a fascist future but that says more about them than it does about the story. I seem to remember that there were many private sector initiatives and public private partnerships but the far regions of the known world were where the action was so all diplomacy and trailblazing was done by an organization that had little concern for budgets, could project force and could be ordained by the civilian authority to legitimately speak for it.

    I always got the impression that most of the species represented human civilizations. Humans were America, the Klingon were the vikings or central Asian tribal empires, the Romulans were the ancient Roman empire (no hints there), Vulcans were the Roman Republic, Cardasians were Fascists, the Ferengi were Hollywood’s image of capitalists, and the Borg… they were just the coolest thing to ever come into existence.


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