Related to ultradense deuterium and monopolium is some speculation in Isreal that there could be a way to enable a form of passive femtotech, which would be stable matter from subatomic particles.
AB Matter speculation is that they think that they have a series of steps whichcan be taken to use neutrons or protons; elements of the core of every atom; and making it into strings, and then crossing the strings into a mesh, then many impossible things becomes possible.
It is the size of the mesh opening which gives it certain properties and the absence of electrons which gives it other properties. Engineering elements of nucleus into strings instead of clumping up.
Recently magnetic monopoles were found in spin ice. (10,000 times magnetically weaker than theoretical free range magnetic monopoles)
There is also recent research about ultradense deuterium. Probably related to hand fulls of molecules. Clusters of 100 molecules or less.
From someone involved in the femtotech theoretical work (who is working with the theorist Bolonkin – Bolonkin has a lot of wild but creative stuff on arxiv):
No lab work, confirmation definitely still needed, no immediate prospects of any kind, I want to be very clear on that. This is a “wouldn’t it be nice” kind of thing. There are ideas and urging investigation, but there is no test tube of AB-Matter sitting in a lab anywhere. There are ideas about approaches that might be productive to build tools to build tools– and the bootstrapping I mentioned earlier might make it pay IF. IF. IF.
There is quantum state read write problem and this is only projecting as far as totally passive femtoscale structures– NO active mechanisms in femtotech. Passive Femto scale structures would make possible extraordinary nano tool tips for various applications, etc,
An article discussing a paper about limitations on quantum state copying
Quantum mechanical universal constructor article.
An article on femtotechnology.
Before the femtotech press release.
Hans Moravec wrote about monopolium (making material out of monopoles)
Super dense conmputers by Hans Moravec.
Recently magnetic monopoles were found in spin ice. (10,000 times magnetically weaker than theoretical free range magnetic monopoles)
Speculation on What Would Be Possible with Passive Femtotech/Stable matter from subatomic particles
NOTE: I am well aware that this is likely impossible. However, it seems more possible to find a loop hole and bootstrapping to achieve something useful here than some of the theoretical work on say warp drive. This seems like something that could have some useful investigation for a million dollars or less per year or at most a few million with the multi-trillion dollar possibility of achieving radical transformation if successful.
Jerusalem, Israel – April 21, 2009– Strategic Solutions today announced a new prospective technology even more advanced than nanotechnology; the prospect of stable matter formed by subatomic particles that is faster than a speeding bullet; more powerful than a locomotive – no not Superman, but a form of super matter. Super strong – million times stronger than steel, the engines made of this new matter will be million times more powerful than a locomotive and aircraft built of this material will have full reflectivity, super-insulation and super energy storage, but most amazing will safely go super-fast with zero friction. Electric grids made of this superconductive material will eliminate the billions of dollars of lost electricity. As it can safely be used in temperatures of millions of degrees, while it is a super insulator, thermal power stations can be built in volcanoes and electricity be transmitted great distances with no loss. Paradoxically, this strongest material is invisible and can go right through matter. This is possibly the defining technology of the 21st century.
The chief scientist of Strategic Solutions Technology Group, Prof. Alexander Bolonkin for decades worked in the Russian Space program while he taught doctoral level courses and later worked for NASA and the USA Air Force research laboratories. His long history in overcoming the problems in space travel gave him unique insight which has evolved into innovations far before his time. One major limitation of space travel is the limitations of matter built from atoms. Aircraft burns its fuel fighting friction. On reentry, the temperatures soar and in outer space the temperatures are brutally cold. What is needed is a material which has zero friction; which does not decay under stress; which can contain and store a great amount of energy and which insulates absolutely. Prof. Bolonkin posited that this material can be made from sub-atomic nuclear matter, from nucleons (neutrons, protons), electrons, and other nuclear particles. In two journal articles he shows this new ‘AB-Matter’ has extraordinary properties as follows:
Super-transparency, invisibility of special AB-Matter-nets. The light we see with has a wavelength of 4-8 microns. Blue is 4.5, red is longer, etc. A net or mesh of AB-Matter having a spacing (step distance) between strings or monofilaments of more than 100 femtometers (10e-13 meter) will pass visible light of this sort with PERFECT efficiency.
Full reflectivity (super-reflectivity). Controlled modification of its properties will produce a PERFECT reflector. And even more amazing than these, controlled invisibility not just to eyes, but to sensors using the spectra we employ. There are so many possibilities for the above three properties alone, in optics, camouflage, directed energy weapons, literally reflecting most of the output of a nuclear bomb in a given direction that simply to catalogue most of them would take months.
Permeable property (ghost-like intangibility power; super-passing capacity). An AB-Matter monofilament net with spacing (mesh size) between strings of more than 100 nanometers (= 10e-11 meters) will pass the atoms and molecules through itself. This provides the ability to travel intangibly through the earth to seek out minerals, or through a diplomatic safe wall of any thickness to reach inside, as easily as a fish swims through water. With appropriate sensors and end effectors you could navigate through the earth and exactly delineate any buried installation or mineral deposit with absolute precision.
Zero friction. If the AB-Matter net has a mesh size distance between strings equal or less than the atomic scale (3×10-10 m), it has an ideal flat surface such that the mechanical friction may be zero. This means that planes and ships and other vehicles can travel WITHOUT energy losses which currently are a huge percentage of fuel consumption. This also means that perfect bearings can eliminate spin-down losses in generators and turbines, and untold other applications that could save vast amounts of energy and money.
Impenetrability for gas, liquids, and solid bodies. When the AB-Matter net has a step size between filaments of less than atomic size it can became impenetrable to conventional matter. While it may be invisible, it has enormous strength. Theoretically this would be the equivalent of the force-field belt beloved of comic book artists whose barrier could not be seen yet could repulse bullets, cannon shells, etc. Aircraft and other vehicles could be rendered nearly invulnerable to assault by low-technology forces.
Super-impenetrability for radiation. If the step size of the AB-Matter net will be less than a wave length of a given radiation, the AB-Matter net will not pass this radiation. In the above scenario, the laser protective goggles with variable spacing would be similarly blocking– but it also works the other way, making selective invisibility possible, as well as invulnerability to nuclear flash.
Zero heat/thermal conductivity because nucleons have a very strong connection between one and another. In practical terms, this means that this is the perfect insulator–enabling small scale melting furnaces and the ability to carry incandescent molten metals in one’s pocket inside a well sealed plastic bottle as long as a layer of the insulator is present and unbreached. The applications for rocket engine designs are obvious, and the increased exhaust velocity means a school-bus sized vehicle could carry astronauts to the Moon in a single stage–and back again, all on a single fueling from Cape Canaveral. Needless to say, the Mach 35 reentry would pose no thermal problem even if the underside of the femto-thin layer were ordinary aircraft aluminum.
Impunity against high temperatures: With appropriate insulation for protection of personnel and equipment, (see above) fusion reactions can be DIRECTLY CONTAINED WITHOUT COOLING or fears of the plasma touching the wall. Millions of degrees can be withstood. Reactor designs for fission also can use unprecedented levels of heat output and theoretically with gas-core fission reactors can DIRECTLY use plasma for industrial purposes as well as conversion efficiencies of over 2/3, and that is being conservative. Similar impunity against corrosive chemicals.
Super or quasi-super conductivity of electricity at any temperature. This is one reason for the conservative estimate of conversion efficiency above. Imagine MHD (magneto hydrodynamic) generators directly putting 50000 C plasma past a SUPERCONDUCTING structure for generating electricity without moving parts! The AB-Matter string can have outer electrons in an arrangement similar to the electronic cloud into metal. But AB-Matter strings or threads can be located along the direction of the electric intensity and they will not resist the electron flow. That means the electric resistance will be zero or very small. The AB-Matter string can have outer electrons in an arrangement similar to the electronic cloud between the nuclei of a metal structure. But AB-Matter strings (threads) can be located along the direction of the electric intensity and they will not resist the electron flow. That means the electric resistance will be zero or very small.
High tensile strength. Safe tensile stress is MILLIONS of times greater than the Safe tensile stress of steel OR NANOTUBES!
High dielectric strength AB-Matter may be used for devices to produce high magnetic intensity. This would be very useful for EMP weapons as well as medical uses and even electromotive equipment of many types and surpassingly light weight, thus enabling economical long range
Absolute chemical stability. No corrosion, no material fatigue, infinite lifetime. All chemical reactions are acted through ORBITAL electron of atoms. The AB-Matter does not have orbital electrons and nucleons cannot combine with usual atoms having electrons. As such, AB-Matter has absolute corrosion resistance. There is no fatigue of material because in conventional material fatigue is result of splits between material crystals and there are no crystals in AB-Matter. That means AB-Matter has lifetime equal to the lifetime of neutrons themselves.
The applications of the AB-Matter are encyclopedic in scope and will create revolutions in many fields of human activity. Some unusual applications include:
Storage of enormous energy. The energy stored in flywheels is highly dependent on the density of the material and the speed it is spinnable at. Lead is dense, but not strong. Kevlar is strong, but not dense. By contrast, a gigantic value of stored energy is possible with AB-Matter because of the extreme values afforded by the strong nuclear force. A car having a pair of 1 gram counterspun fly-wheels (2 grams total) which would be spun up at the factory with huge electric motors there, can run all its life without gasoline or any other refueling. Aircraft or sea ships having 100 gram (two 50 gram counterspun fly-wheels) can fly or swim all its life without additional fuel. The AB matter flywheel storage has zero friction and indefinite energy storage time.
Electricity Grid. While copper is one of the best electrical conductors, it still has some resistance which means that there is energy loss. In Israel which is about the size of New Jersey, the loss from the electricity generator in Ashkelon to Eilat, about 100 miles, is 15%. In the United States, the vast distances that electricity must be transported means that millions and perhaps billions of dollars is wasted. As mentioned above, AB Matter can both store electricity and transmit electricity with virtually no loss. It is inevitable that the future electric grid will be constructed by AB Matter.
Simple thermonuclear reactor. The AB-Matter film may be used as the wall of a simple thermonuclear reactor. The AB-Matter film allows a direct 100% hit by the accelerated nuclei to stationary nuclei located in the film. Wherever it impacts, there is a nucleus waiting! You get a controlled nuclear reaction of cheap fuel. In conventional thermonuclear reactor the probability of a hit by the accelerated or highly heated nuclei to other nuclei is trifling. The accelerated particles, which run through ghostlike ATOMS and lose the energy, need therefore to be sent through to repeated collisions each of which loses energy until the one that hits and generates energy. The winner must pay for all the losers. That way we need big, very complex, and expensive high temperature conventional thermonuclear reactors. They are so nearly unbuildable because ordinary matter literally cannot take the reactions they are designed to contain, and therefore special tricks must be used to sidestep this, and the reactions are so improbable that again special tricks are required. Here, every shot is a hit and the material can endure every consequence of that hit. A good vacuum system and a means of getting power and isotopes in and out are the main problems, and by no means insuperable ones. Using the AB-Matter we can design a micro-thermonuclear AB reactor.
Computer and computer memory. The AB-Matter film allows writing in 1 square centimeter 2.5×10e25 bits of information. The current 45 nanometer technology allows writing only 2.5×10e14 bits in 1 square centimeter. That means the main chip and memory of computer based in AB-Matter film may be a billion times smaller and presumably thousands of times faster based on the lesser distance signals must travel.
Increasing efficiency of a conventional aviation and transport vehicles. AB-Matter does not experience friction. The air drag in aviation is produced up 90% by air friction on aircraft surfaces. Therefore an AB-Matter friction free coating would enable global range in most aircraft which today only have an operational radius of only a thousand kilometers or so. Military aircraft could break the friction barrier that has held practical speeds to under Mach 3 for two generations, and suborbital hops would become more economical than transoceanic atmospheric flight in many cases because of the perfect heat shielding.
Hypersonic aircraft. The friction and heat which attacks conventional materials for hypersonic aircraft limits their speed. Using the AB-Matter eliminates this problem. Many designs for aerospace planes could capture oxygen in flight, which would save the cost of hauling oxidizer and carrying fuel. These designs enable new airliner type geometries and greater payloads because it eliminates the weight of the oxidizer and the tanks needed to hold it. A single stage to orbit or antipode aerospace plane would be quite possible with AB-Matter. For that matter, a single stage to lunar surface and back, just like the movies.
High efficiency rocket, jet and piston aviation engines. The efficiency of conventional jet and rocket engines are limited by the temperature and safety limits of conventional matter (2000oK). If the rotor blades in a jet engine or combustion chamber in rocket and piston engines are constructed from AB-Matter, their capacities radically improve. As there is no need for a cooling system, their construction is simplified.
AB-Matter as propulsion system of space ship. The most important characteristic of rocket engine is specific impulse which is the speed of gas or other material flowing out from the propulsion system. The chemical rocket engine has a specific impulse of about 3700 m/s. That value is 10 thousand times less than an AB Matter engine might be capable of. In our design of the rocket engine, the energy is saved in the flywheel. Current projects of a nuclear rocket are very complex, heavy, and dangerous for humans because of gamma and neutron radiation and have specific impulse of thousand of times less than the AB-Matter rocket engine which may be very small and which can produce any rocket thrust in any moment in any direction.
Super-armor from conventional and nonconventional weapons. No weapon exists which comes close to the speed needed to break through or perforate a shield of AB-Matter.
To oversimplify what we propose, AB Matter is really nothing more than taking neutrons or protons; elements of the core of every atom; and making it into strings, and then crossing the strings into a mesh. It is the size of the mesh opening which gives it certain properties and the absence of electrons which gives it other properties.
Strategic Solutions Technology Group is willing to share with the public the mathematical modeling which predicts these properties, but the designs of how to do it is a closely guarded secret which of course needs substantial R&D to actualize. After this type of matter is produced, the world will be unrecognizable. For example, we can configure this so that one probe goes to the core as it can go through matter like its not there, a second combination can resist any heat and pipeline the lava up and a third can be the turbine that makes the electricity. We then will have virtually unlimited electricity without burning any fossil fuels.
Finally, mankind can be safe from all conventional and unconventional weapons. For the first time in 50 years mankind is safe not just from nuclear weapons and other WMD but from all conventional weapons making warfare unfeasible. This is not a brave new world scenario but a safe new world. Eliminating the need to burn fossil fuel also makes this a clean new world.
A little section on computing with muons by Hans Moravic.
Brian Wang is a Futurist Thought Leader and a popular Science blogger with 1 million readers per month. His blog Nextbigfuture.com is ranked #1 Science News Blog. It covers many disruptive technology and trends including Space, Robotics, Artificial Intelligence, Medicine, Anti-aging Biotechnology, and Nanotechnology.
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