Yale study estimates global use of Rare Earths

Global In-Use Stocks of the Rare Earth Elements: A First Estimate

Even though rare earth metals are indispensible in modern technology, very little quantitative information other than combined rare earth oxide extraction is available on their life cycles. We have drawn upon published and unpublished information from China, Japan, the United States, and elsewhere to estimate flows into use and in-use stocks for 15 of the metals: La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu, and Y. Here, we show that the combined flows into use comprised about 90 Gg (Gg is a billion grams which is one thousand tons] in 2007; the highest for individual metals were 28 Gg Ce and 22 Gg La, the lowest were 0.16 Gg Tm and 0.15 Gg Lu. In-use stocks ranged from 144 Gg Ce to 0.2 Gg Tm; these stocks, if efficiently recycled, could provide a valuable supplement to geological stocks.

9 pages of supplemental information

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