Paul March explains that Dr. Woodward is now seeing consistent thrust signatures that are reversible in the 1.0 micro-Newton thrust range as captured using his ARC-Lite torque pendulum, which has a force resolution of ~0.05 micro-Newtons. The thrust magnitude and direction output of these PZT stacks are very phase dependent, so as these devices had their drive frequency swept through their mechanical resonant frequency just below 60 kHz, several thrust reversals are observed due to the phase reversals also observed between the 1-omega mass fluctuation signal and the 2-omega force rectification signal that was injected directly or generated in the PZT stack by its nonlinear response to its 1-omega drive signal. These M-E like forces are still very small, but they are now repeatable and appear to observe M-E scaling.
The effect is 3 times larger than the Seismic noise of 0.33 micronewtons. Woodward now thinks he understands the non-linear PZT-Stack’s phase relationships between the 1-omega mass fluctuation and 2-omega force rectification drive signals well enough, to see a way forward. I.e., the engineering of usable M-E based thrusters can now start in earnest per Woodward. How many unknown, unknowns are yet to be tripped over on the way to making Paul March’s M-E powered WarpStar concept vehicle a reality is yet to be determined. Paul March and James Woodward believe that a way forward now seems possible…
Woodward is of the opinion that he knows enough now to actually build the next M-E drive prototype that should produce at least an order of magnitude higher thrust than the current PZT unit’s ~1.0 uN.
There is 3 micronewtons in one direction and 2 micronewtons in the reverse. This sentence is referring to the negative going 3.0 uN force calibration pulse supplied by the two B-field coils attached to the ARC-Lite torque pendulum needed to calibrate the as built torque pendulum. This is the normal way one calibrates these kinds of torque pendulums and that is to use a know force supplied by the repulsion or attraction between two magnetic coils or two electrostatic plates. The PZT-Stack itself was only generating forces on the order of +/-1.0 uN with approximately 150V-p applied to the Stack dependent on the relative phase between the 1-omega drive signal and 2-omega force rectification signal.
Evidently, there is a thrust signal – at the level of about 1.0 uN – that reverses direction as the frequency sweeps down through the stack’s mechanical resonance at 60 KHz and below, (where the second harmonic of the voltage signal is not completely suppressed by the limitations of the power amplifier and low pass characteristics of the power circuit)
Mach Effect Propulsion would enable a science fiction like future
If the Mach Effect is real [mass fluctations) and behaves as theorized (with some experimental confirmation) by James Woodward and the effect scales up as expected then we can create propellentless space drive. It appears that the latest research work by James Woodward is validating the existence of the effect.
1-G Space Drive
One-G constant acceleration and deceleration space drive would mean Earth-to-moon in 4 hours, Earth to Mars in 2-5 days, Earth to Saturn in 8-9 days.
The Woodward effect is a hypothesis proposed by James F. Woodward, a physicist at California State University, Fullerton, that energy-storing ions experience transient mass fluctuations when accelerated.
Paul March updates –
Dr. Woodward’s work is based on NO new physics. His mass fluctuation conjecture rest squarely on accepted and experimentally verified theories such as Newton’s three laws of motion, Einstein’s special and general relativity, Lorentz invariance, and of course Einstein’s famous mass = Energy / c^2. And no, it’s NOT E= m*c^2 for that version came later. The only element in Woodward’s theoretical foundations still in dispute is how to integrate Mach’s principle and its effects on the origins of inertia into GRT.
Woodward’s scaling rules appear to work given the 1 microNewtons Jim’s device is generating at 60kHz and the fact that the M-E predicts cubic frequency scaling, it fits right in with [Paul March’s] results operating at 2.2 and 3.8 MHz. Jim needs to increasing his operating frequency by a couple of orders of magnitude to see some much more impressive results measured in milliNewtons