A broad review of fundamental electronic properties of two-dimensional graphene with the emphasis on density and temperature-dependent carrier transport in doped or gated graphene structures is provided. A salient feature of this review is a critical comparison between carrier transport in graphene and in two-dimensional semiconductor systems (e.g., heterostructures, quantum wells, inversion layers) so that the unique features of graphene electronic properties arising from its gapless, massless, chiral Dirac spectrum are highlighted. Experiment and theory, as well as quantum and semiclassical transport, are discussed in a synergistic manner in order to provide a unified and comprehensive perspective. Although the emphasis of the review is on those aspects of graphene transport where reasonable consensus exists in the literature, open questions are discussed as well. Various physical mechanisms controlling transport are described in depth including long-range charged impurity scattering, screening, short-range defect scattering, phonon scattering, many-body effects, Klein tunneling, minimum conductivity at the Dirac point, electron-hole puddle formation, p-n junctions, localization, percolation, quantum-classical crossover, midgap states, quantum Hall effects, and other phenomena.