In the article “Femtotechnology:Nuclear AB-Matter with Fantastic Properties” American Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences. 2009, p.501-514. Bolonkin offered and considered possible super strong nuclear matter. But many readers asked about the long-term stability of the proposed nuclear matter. It is well known, the conventional nuclear matter having more than 92 protons or more than 238 nucleons become instable. In the given work the author shows that the special artificial forms of nuclear AB-Matter make it stable and give it fantastic properties.For example, by the offered AB-Needle (in this article) you can pierce any body without any damage, support motionless satellites, reach the other planets,research Earth’s interior. These forms of nuclear matter are not in Nature now, but nanotubes also are not in Nature. That is artificial matter buildable in the projected near future by human effort. AB-Matter also is not currently in existence, but research and investigation of their possibilities, stability and properties are necessary for creating them.
NOTE – carbon nanotubes (at least multi-walled carbon nanotubes) may exist in nature. However, there are unnatural materials that have been produced.
Stable Femtotech Matter
The necessary condition (prerequisite LAW) of stability the AB-Matter are the following:)
The number of protons must be less than approximately 90 into a local sphere of the radius of 3 femtometers at any point within AB-Matter.
2) The number of nucleons must be less than approximately 240 into a local sphere of the radius of 3 femtometers ( 6 femtometers diameter) at any point within AB-Matter.
3) AB-Matter contains a minimum of two protons.
That law follows from relation between attractive nuclear and repulsive electrostatic forces into nucleus. The nuclear force is short distance force (2fm), the electrostatic force is long distance. When number of protons is more than 92, the repulsive electrostatic force may become the more than nuclear force and electrostatic force may destroy the AB-Matter.
(taken from ). Design of AB-Matter from nucleons (neutrons, protons, etc.)and electrons.
(a) linear one string (monofilament) (fiber, whisker, filament, thread,Needle);
(b) ingot from four nuclear monofilaments;
(c) hollow multi-ingot fromnuclear monofilament;
(d) string made from protons and neutrons with electronsrotated around monofilament;
(e) single wall femto tube (SWFT) fiber with rotatedelectrons;
(f) cross-section of multi wall femto tube (MWFT) string;
(g) cross-sectionof tube;
(h) – single wall femto tube (SWFT) string with electrons inserted into AB-Matter .
Notations: 1 – nuclear string; 2 – nucleons (neutrons, protons, etc.). 3 –protons; 4 – orbit of electrons; 5 – nucleons; 6 – cloud of electrons around tube.
The main difference the AB-Matter (stable femtotech matter) from conventional matter is a strict order of location of the proton and neutrons (for example: proton-neutron-proton-neutron-….) in line (string) or in the super thin (in one nucleon) plate (nuclear graphene). That gives a strong tensile stress (electrostatic repulsive force), which does not allow the nucleons to mix in a messy clump (ball). This force is less than the nuclear force if the AB-Matter has a form where the most protons are located far from one other, where the nuclear force from the far protons is absent.
The simplest use of AB-Matter is strengthening and reinforcing conventional material by AB-Matter fiber. As it is shown in the‘Computation’ section, AB-Matter fiber is stronger (has a gigantic ultimate tensile stress) than conventional material by a factor of millions of times, can endure millions degrees of temperature, doesn’t accept any attacking chemical reactions. We can insert (for example, by casting around the reinforcement) AB-Matter fiber (or net) into steel, aluminum, plastic and the resultant matrix of conventional material increases in strength by thousands of times—if precautions are taken that the reinforcement stays put! Because of the extreme strength disparity design tricks must be used to assure that the fibers stay ‘rooted’. The matrix form of conventional artificial fiber reinforcement is used widely in current technology. This increases the tensile stress resistance of the reinforced matrix matter by typically 2 – 4 times. Engineers dream about a nanotube reinforcement of conventional matrix materials which might increase the tensile stress by 10 – 20 times, but nanotubes are very expensive and researchers cannot decrease its cost to acceptable values yet despite years of effort. Another way is using a construct of AB-Matter as a continuous film or net or as the AB-Needles.
Consequence of the Stability Rules / Law
That law means: the number of nucleons at any point of across-sectional area AB-Matter design (shown above) must be less than 37 within a radius of 3 femtometers. This does not limit the strong pressure possibilities of AB-Matter because AB-Needles have the surprising property discovered by author – the ability to transmit a huge pressure force without ordinary buckling occurring in any length of AB-Needle (transferring a input pressure to any long distance).
The most important design of AB-Matter is connection of nucleons in string(fig.5a,b,c). That may be only protons pppp…. (fig.5a), proton-neutron-proton-neutron-…. ( pnpn….)(fig.5b), proton-neutron-neutron-proton-neutron-neutron-…. (pnnpnn….)(fig.5c). The ends of AB-string contains the protons. The electrostatic repulsive force of these end protons is not BALANCED and create the strong repulsive force 3 (fig.5c,d,e) which stretches the AB-string. That helps to keep the string form and other form(plate, tube, beam, shaft, rod, etc.) of AB-Matter presented in figs. 3, 5. That is a very important property. This property is absent in conventional molecular matter, because conventional matter contains neutral molecules. The charges of ions in conventional matter are locate far one from other and the net repulsive force is small. The property discovered by the author gives the AB-String the amusing feature: Independence of the safe pressing stress from the LENGTH of the nuclear string. Reminder: The safety pressing force of long conventional matter strong depends upon length of wire, beam,shaft, etc. According to Euler’s Law the safe compressive force in ordinary matter is inversely proportional to the square of the length of the rod. If the length of rod is more than the safe length, the construction loses stability (buckling or bending). You cannot, for example, with ordinary matter, push a car with a thread or thin wire having one km length. Such thin long rod like structures will buckle and bend.By contrast, the AB-Matter thin string can pass a given compressive force for any length of string. That why it is named the AB-Needle.
AB-Needle allows penetrating into any conventional matter, into the interior of Earth,planets, Sun. They allow making interplanetary trips and investigations of planet from Earth. (Given the necessity of compensating for local and target planetary rotation!)
The paper has some computations of nuclear and electric forces. The paper also looks at several proposed methods for production (particle traps and toroids using the magnetic forces) of AB-Needles.
Femtotechnology: AB-Needles. Fantastic properties and Applications
Femtotechnology: Nuclear AB-Matter with Fantastic Properties