Graphene is the wonder material that could solve the problem of making ever faster computers and smaller mobile devices when current silicon microchip technology hits an inevitable wall. Graphene, a single layer of carbon atoms in a tight hexagonal arrangement, has been highly researched because of its incredible electronic properties, with theoretical speeds 100 times greater than silicon. But putting the material into a microchip that could outperform current silicon technology has proven difficult.
The answer may lie in new nanoscale systems based on ultrathin layers of materials with exotic properties. Called two-dimensional layered materials, these systems could be important for microelectronics, various types of hypersensitive sensors, catalysis, tissue engineering and energy storage. Researchers at Penn State have applied one such 2D layered material, a combination of graphene and hexagonal boron nitride, to produce improved transistor performance at an industrially relevant scale.
A team of Penn State researchers has developed field effect transistors using graphene and hexagonal boron nitride on a 75-millimeter wafer, a significant step toward graphene-based electronics.
Hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) is a promising dielectric material for graphene-based electronic devices. Here we investigate the potential of h-BN gate dielectrics, grown by chemical vapor deposition (CVD), for integration with quasi-freestanding epitaxial graphene (QFEG). We discuss the large scale growth of h-BN on copper foil via a catalytic thermal CVD process and the subsequent transfer of h-BN to a 75 mm QFEG wafer. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurements confirm the absence of h-BN/graphitic domains and indicate that the film is chemically stable throughout the transfer process, while Raman spectroscopy indicates a 42% relaxation of compressive stress following removal of the copper substrate and subsequent transfer of h-BN to QFEG. Despite stress-induced wrinkling observed in the films, Hall effect measurements show little degradation (less than 10%) in carrier mobility for h-BN coated QFEG. Temperature dependent Hall measurements indicate little contribution from remote surface optical phonon scattering and suggest that, compared to HfO2 based dielectrics, h-BN can be an excellent material for preserving electrical transport properties. Graphene transistors utilizing h-BN gates exhibit peak intrinsic cutoff frequencies over 30 GHz (2.4× that of HfO2-based devices).
“Other groups have shown that graphene on boron nitride can improve performance two to three times, but not in a way that could be scaled up. For the first time, we have been able to take this material and apply it to make transistors at wafer scale,” said Joshua Robinson, assistant professor of materials science and engineering at Penn State and the corresponding author on a paper reporting their work in the online version of the journal ACS Nano.
In the article, the Penn State team describes a method for integrating a thin layer of graphene only one or two atoms thick, with a second layer of hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) with a thickness of a few atoms up to several hundred atoms. The resulting bilayer material constitutes the next step in creating functional graphene field effect transistors for high frequency electronic and optoelectronic devices.
Previous research by other groups has shown that a common material called hexagonal boron nitride (hBN), a synthetic mixture of boron and nitrogen that is used as an industrial lubricant and is found in many cosmetics, is a potential replacement for silicon dioxide and other high-performance dielectrics that have failed to integrate well with graphene. Because boron sits next to carbon on the periodic table, and hexagonal boron nitride has a similar arrangement of atoms as graphene, the two materials match up well electronically. In fact, hBN is often referred to as white graphene. To be of more than academic interest in the lab, however, the hBN-graphene bilayer had to be grown at wafer scale – from around 3 inches (75 mm) to almost 12 inches (300 mm).
The Penn State team solved this problem by using a prior technique developed in their lab to produce a uniform, large-area, and high quality layer of epitaxial graphene suitable for high frequency applications. This “quasi-freestanding epitaxial graphene” was produced by attaching hydrogen atoms to the graphene in order to “passivate dangling bonds,” essentially flattening and smoothing the graphene film. The hexagonal boron nitride was then grown on a transition metal substrate using a chemical vapor deposition technique that is standard in manufacturing. The hBN was released from the substrate via one of several transfer processes and layered on top of the graphene on a 75mm wafer, marking the first integration of epitaxial graphene with hBN on a scale compatible with industry needs.
Building on their earlier work with epitaxial graphene, which had already increased transistor performance by two to three times, this research adds a further two-to-three-times improvement in performance and shows the strong potential for utilizing graphene in electronics, according to Robinson. In the near future, the Penn State team hopes to demonstrate graphene based integrated circuits and high-performance devices suitable for industrial-scale manufacturing on 100mm wafers.
“We use all standard lithography, which is important for nanomanufacturing,” Robinson added. In order to make a dent in the highly competitive microchip industry, a new material system needs to be compatible with current processing technology as well as offer a significant performance boost.
Brian Wang is a Futurist Thought Leader and a popular Science blogger with 1 million readers per month. His blog Nextbigfuture.com is ranked #1 Science News Blog. It covers many disruptive technology and trends including Space, Robotics, Artificial Intelligence, Medicine, Anti-aging Biotechnology, and Nanotechnology.
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