China has ten light water nuclear reactor designs that are built or are being built. China also has a high temperature pebble bed reactor and a few breeder reactors under construction.
The ACP1000 reactor has gotten its first export contract for a self-developed advanced nuclear reactor, and more global cooperation is under way, said a senior executive of China National Nuclear Corp. The reactor has passed an international review of 40 nuclear experts.
Argentina is also talking to China about ACP1000 reactors. The ACP1000 technology was ready for export to Asian and South American countries.
The contract cost will be 10 percent lower than current third-generation nuclear reactors. The first ACP1000 unit to be constructed will have more than 85 percent of its equipment manufactured domestically, and the price can be reduced further if the localization rate improves in the future.
CNNC is also looking to the European and North American markets, but exports to these regions first have to obtain approval from local authorities.
“We have submitted an application to the International Atomic Energy Association for a review of the ACP1000, which will help us get the permits to export to Europe and North America,” he said.
This list from 2012 is missing the ACP100. The ACP 100 is a small modular light water reactor that is a miniature version of the ACP1000
The ACP100, a multipurpose small module reactor developed by the China National Nuclear Corporation (CNNC), is a 100 MW(e) advanced pressurized water reactor with small integrated modules. Its 2-6 modules can be built at the same time and a single module of the ACP100 can supply 310MWt of Reactor thermal power, a maximum heat production of 1000GJ/h, a maximum steam production of 420t/h and a maximum seawater desalination production of 120000t/d.
The ACP600 is a 600 MW(e) two-loop advanced PWR developed by CNNC. The reactor core contains 121 fuel assemblies, with decreased core linear power density supplying higher thermal margin. Passive safety systems are employed in addition to active safety systems, enhancing the response capability in the case of a station black out accident.
The ACP1000, also developed by CNNC, is an 1100 MW(e) three-loop advanced PWR. The reactor core of this advanced light water reactor is composed of 177 advanced fuel assemblies, increasing power while ensuring a sufficient thermal safety margin. Both active and passive safety systems were adopted in the ACP1000 design to perform functions
such as emergency core cooling, core residual heat removal, melt core retaining and cooling, and containment heat removal. It also contains enhanced protection for external hazards. It also o ffers an extended plant design lifetime (60 years) and refueling cycle (18 months) for an improved economic competitiveness.
The ACPR1000 is an advanced Chinese 1000 MW(e) PWR nuclear reactor developed by CGNPC. This 3-loop PWR, with a generator output of around 1150 MW(e), focuses on safety performance while maintaining consideration for economic efficiency. Enhanced safety features include an extra heat removal system to remove the heat out of the containment through containment spray and to realize in-vessel retention (IVR) of core damage under severe accident by external reactor vessel cooling (ERVC).
CAP1400 – Westinghouse announced in 2008 that it was working with SNPTC and Shanghai Nuclear Engineering Research & Design Institute (SNERDI) to develop jointly a passively safe 1400-1500 MWe design from the AP1000, for large-scale deployment. SNPTC initially called it the Large Advanced Passive PWR Nuclear Power Plant (LPP or APWR). This development with SNERDI opens the possibility of China itself exporting the new larger units with Westinghouse’s cooperation. In December 2009, the State Nuclear Plant Demonstration Company – a 55-45% joint venture company by SNPTC and China Huaneng Group – was set up to build and operate an initial demonstration pair of the larger 2-loop design, the CAP1400, at Huaneng’s Shidaowan site. CNNC and SNPTC have talked of export potential from late 2013, and SNPTC said that “exploration of the global market” for the CAP1400 will start in 2013.
CAP1400 may be followed by a larger, 3-loop CAP1700 design if the passive cooling system can be scaled to that level. Agreements with Westinghouse stipulate that SNPTC will own the intellectual property rights for any derivatives over 1350 MWe. SNPEC is doing the engineering under a team from SNERDI, the Shandong Electric Power Engineering Consulting Institute (SEPECI), and the State Nuclear Power Equipment Manufacturing Company (SNPEMC), which will make the components.
Brian Wang is a Futurist Thought Leader and a popular Science blogger with 1 million readers per month. His blog Nextbigfuture.com is ranked #1 Science News Blog. It covers many disruptive technology and trends including Space, Robotics, Artificial Intelligence, Medicine, Anti-aging Biotechnology, and Nanotechnology.
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