Further evidence of 600-1000 km/s flow across 2.5 billion light years which might mean an attraction from another universe

Researchers analyzing the three-year WMAP data using the kinematic Sunyaev-Zel’dovich effect, found evidence of a “surprisingly coherent” 600–1000 km/s flow of clusters toward a 20-degree patch of sky between the constellations of Centaurus and Vela.

Evidence of the existence of ‘multiverse’ was revealed for the first time by a cosmic map of background radiation data gathered by Planck telescope. The first ‘hard evidence’ that other universes exist has been claimed to have been found by cosmologists studying the Planck data. They have concluded that it shows anomalies that can only have been caused by the gravitational pull of other universes.

The clusters appear to be moving along a line extending from our solar system toward Centaurus/Hydra, but the direction of this motion is less certain. Evidence indicates that the clusters are headed outward along this path, away from Earth, but the team cannot yet rule out the opposite flow.

Further study shows the flow persists to much greater distances – as far as 2.5 billion light-years away.

The unexplained motion has hundreds of millions of stars dashing towards a certain part of the sky at over eight hundred kilometers per second. Not much speed in cosmic terms, but the preferred direction certainly is: most cosmological models have things moving in all directions equally at the extreme edges of the universe. Something that could make things aim for a specific spot on such a massive scale hasn’t been imagined before. The scientists are keeping to the proven astrophysical strategy of calling anything they don’t understand “dark”, terming the odd motion a “dark flow”.

The new study builds on the previous one by using the five-year results from WMAP and by doubling the number of galaxy clusters.

“It takes, on average, about an hour of telescope time to measure the distance to each cluster we work with, not to mention the years required to find these systems in the first place,” Ebeling said. “This is a project requiring considerable followthrough.”

According to Atrio-Barandela, who has focused on understanding the possible errors in the team’s analysis, the new study provides much stronger evidence that the dark flow is real. For example, the brightest clusters at X-ray wavelengths hold the greatest amount of hot gas to distort CMB photons. “When processed, these same clusters also display the strongest KSZ signature — unlikely if the dark flow were merely a statistical fluke,” he said.

In addition, the team, which now also includes Alastair Edge at the University of Durham, England, sorted the cluster catalog into four “slices” representing different distance ranges. They then examined the preferred flow direction for the clusters within each slice. While the size and exact position of this direction display some variation, the overall trends among the slices exhibit remarkable agreement.

The researchers are currently working to expand their cluster catalog in order to track the dark flow to about twice the current distance. [The flow could be 5 billion light years or more in size but we have not yet completed studies to get to the full size of it] Improved modeling of hot gas within the galaxy clusters will help refine the speed, axis, and direction of motion.

Future plans call for testing the findings against newer data released from the WMAP project and the European Space Agency’s Planck mission, which is also currently mapping the microwave background.

Arxiv – Planck intermediate results. XIII. Constraints on peculiar velocities

Using Planck data combined with the Meta Catalogue of X-ray detected Clusters of galaxies (MCXC), we address the study of peculiar motions by searching for evidence of the kinetic Sunyaev-Zeldovich effect (kSZ). By implementing various filters designed to extract the kSZ generated at the positions of the clusters, we obtain consistent constraints on the radial peculiar velocity average, root mean square (rms), and local bulk flow amplitude at different depths. For the whole cluster sample of average redshift 0.18, the measured average radial peculiar velocity with respect to the cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation at that redshift, i.e., the kSZ monopole, amounts to $72 pm 60$,km,s$^{-1}$. This constitutes less than 1,% of the relative Hubble velocity of the cluster sample with respect to our local CMB frame. From a subset of this cluster sample Planck finds the radial peculiar velocity rms to be below 800,km,s$^{-1}$ at the 95,% confidence level, which is around three times the $Lambda$CDM prediction for the typical cluster radial velocity rms at $z=0.15$. Planck data also set strong constraints on the local bulk flow in volumes centred on the Local Group. There is no detection of bulk flow as measured in any comoving sphere extending to the maximum redshift covered by the cluster sample. A blind search for bulk flows in this sample has an upper limit of 254,km,s$^{-1}$ (95,% confidence level) dominated by CMB confusion and instrumental noise, indicating that the Universe is largely homogeneous on Gpc scales. In this context, in conjunction with supernova observations, Planck is able to rule out a large class of inhomogeneous void models as alternatives to dark energy or modified gravity. The Planck constraints on peculiar velocities and bulk flows are thus consistent with the $Lambda$CDM scenario.

SOURCE – Daily Galaxy, Arxiv and Planck Telescope project

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