On March 9, 1945, B-29 bombers in the U.S. Air Force began dropping incendiary bombs on the city of Tokyo. This raid, known as “Operation Meetinghouse,” caused incredible destruction, killing perhaps 100,000 people aand burning out fifteen square miles of the city. Incendiary bombings continued in the months to come, targeting other Japanese cities and killing hundreds of thousands of Japanese civilians.
James M. Lindsay, CFR’s senior vice president and director of studies, says the firebombing of Tokyo should remind us of the destructive power of conventional weapons. During WW2 conventional bombings accounted for far more civilian deaths in Japan than did the nuclear weapons dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki.
Other Conventional – non-nuclear weapons
The 57-mm Mk 295 ammunition is a pre-fragmented, programmable, proximity-fuzed fixed round for use with the 57-mm Mk 110 Naval Gun system. The 57-mm Mk 295 consists of a 6-mode programmable fuze, a pre-fragmented projectile shell containing PBX-explosive, a brass cartridge case with Low Vulnerability Ammunition (LOVA) propellant and an electric primer. The 57-mm Mk 295 ammunition is Insensitive Munition (IM) improved in accordance with MIL-STD 2105B. The 57-mm Mk 295 ammo provides six settable fuze function modes from a single round type to optimize detonation effects against aerial, surface or ground threats being addressed. One of the Mk 295 rounds can replace multiple conventional rounds, increasing stowed kills. Each 57-mm Mk 295 fuze is automatically and individually programmed by the Mk 110 Naval Gun system Proximity Fuze Programmer, which continually receives data from the ship’s Fire Control System. Each fuze is programmed to the selected mode immediately before firing. The projectile section of the 57-mm Mk 295 round delivers more than 8,000 pre-formed tungsten fragments in reaction to 420 grams of PBX explosive. With an effective range of nearly nine miles, the 57-mm Mk 295 projectile achieves devastating effects against all target types in any selected mode of fuze operation. The Mk 295 ammunition is more cost effective than comparable ammunition, and more importantly, due to its all-target versatility, occupies a significantly smaller logistics footprint.
The Russian Father of All Bombs well call it the FOAB, for now weighs 7100 kilograms vs. the MOABs 8200KG, has an explosive yield of 44 tons of TNT equivalent compared to the MOABs 11 tons and has a destructive radius of 300 meters vice 150 meters