Theory and Experimental Work on Mach Effect Thrusters (MET) presentation.

**How do METs Mach Effect Thrusters work?**

• METs depend on “Mach’s principle” being correct.

• Mach’s principle is the proposition that all inertial forces – the forces of reaction in Newton’s third law of mechanics – are produced by the gravitational action of all of the “matter” (everything that gravitates) in the universe.

• In our universe, the conditions needed for this to be true in general relativity are those in fact observed – spatial flatness at cosmic scale.

• When the action of gravity on accelerating local objects is analyzed in relativistically correct fashion, it is found that the rest masses of accelerating objects that are also changing their internal energies (being squished) change. They fluctuate.

• If these rest mass fluctuations are produced periodically, and a second periodic force is brought to bear, you can push heavy, pull light on the fluctuating mass and produce a steady thrust.

The gravitational/inertial effects in question are transients; fluctuations in the rest-masses of objects accelerated by external forces that undergo changes in their internal energies as they are accelerated.

PZT IS THE ACTIVE MASS, (PIEZO-ELECTRIC EFFECT … V)THE EXTERNAL FORCE IS CAUSED BY THE ELECTRO-STRICTIVE FORCE IN PZT, GOES AS V

**Experimental Conclusions**

• The experimental results suggest that Mach effect exists [3-4 micronewton signal looks clear].

• The thrusts are closer than order of magnitude to those predicted.

• The experimental program aims to increase thrust to commercial levels for satellite station-keeping.

The new experimental results of the previous 6 months. The emphasis has been on a new construction using a single central bolt and annular Lead Zirconate Titanate (PZT) disks. This arrangement closely resembles the readily available tonpilz transducers.

Results obtained by varying the reaction mass, the pre-tensioning of the bolt and also the arrangement of the PZT crystals in the stack.

Thanks to DeltaV at Talkpolywell for the links

The Mach Effect Thruster is a device which uses Mach’s principle in gravitational theory to produce a constant acceleration in a device which is undergoing internal energy changes and mass fluctuations- as discussed in peer-reviewed papers spanning 20 years and a book by Woodward and recently by HF. The MET requires no fuel as a propellant needing only electric power of 100-200 Watts to operate. We regularly see a small amount of thrust in the laboratory using a piezoelectric device in a vacuum chamber mounted on a very sensitive torsion balance. Our goal is to increase the observed thrust by changing the construction of the device and the materials used. Further modeling (in the multi-physics finite element software COMSOL) and theoretical investigation is needed.

Arxiv – Mach’s principle, Action at a Distance and Cosmology

Hoyle and Narlikar (HN) in the 1960’s developed a theory of gravitation which was completely Machian and used both retarded and advanced waves to communicate gravitational influence between particles. The advanced waves, which travel backward in time, are difficult to visualize and although they are mathematically allowed by relativistic wave equations, they never really caught on. The HN theory reduced to Einstein’s theory of gravity in the smooth fluid approximation and a transformation into the rest frame of the fluid. Unfortunately the theory has been ignored by much of the General Relativity community since it was developed with the static universe in mind. However, it is easy to drop the static universe condition (by dropping the “C”-field matter creation terms) and then you have a perfectly good theory of gravitation. Hawking in 1965 pointed out a possible flaw in the theory. This involved integrating out into the distant future to account for all the advanced waves which might influence the mass of a particle here and now. Hawking used infinity as his upper time limit and showed the integral was divergent. We would like to point out that since the universe is known to be expanding, and accelerating, the upper limit in the advanced wave time integral

should not be infinite but is bounded by the Cosmic Event Horizon. This event horizon He represents a barrier between future events that can be observed and those which cannot. We maintain that the advanced integral is in fact finite when the cosmic event horizon is taken into account, since the upper limit of the advanced wave integral becomes He/c. Hawking’s objection is no longer valid and the HN theory becomes a working theory once again.