Beyond GPS with Atomic Gyroscopes, Light Pulsed Atomic Interferometry and 1000 times more precision with chip scale atomic clocks

Super accurate chip scale atomic clocks are a critical part of going beyond the Global Positioning System

This is for superior chip size atomic clocks. The U.S. has superior in lab and large atomic and laser clocks. They are shrinking them down and making them cheaper. Hundreds of bucks instead of millions. They have an atomic clock on a chip but they want it 1000 times more accurate.

Next Generation Atomic Clock (NGAC)

Atomic clock technology provides the high-performance backbone of timing and synchronization for DoD navigation, communications, Intelligence Surveillance and Reconnaissance (ISR), and Electronic Warfare (EW) systems. Prior DARPA investment in Chip-Scale Atomic Clock (CSAC) technology has led to recent demonstrations of enhanced DoD capabilities, enabled by the wide availability of atomic-quality timing in portable battery-powered applications. The Next-Generation Atomic Clock (NGAC) program will develop a next-generation chip-scale atomic clock, with 100X-1000X improvement in key performance parameters, by employing alternative approaches to atomic confinement and interrogation, with particular focus on developing the component technologies necessary to enable low-cost manufacturing and robust deployment in harsh DoD environments.

The NGAC program will develop a Chip-Scale Atomic Clock achieving temperature coefficient of frequency of less than one quadrillionth of a degree Celsius and frequency drift less than one trillions of a month. This will enable precise timing on low-CSWaP platforms with extended mission duration. In order to achieve these performance metrics, novel approaches to atomic confinement and interrogation will be explored and components developed.

DARPA FY 2016 Plans:
– Develop low-CSWaP (Cost, Size, Weight, and Power) application-specific laser devices, optical modulators, shutters, and isolators.
– Demonstrate integration of application-specific optical components into robust photonic integrated circuits. – Develop techniques for alkali metal vapor pressure control over the full DoD temperature range.
– Develop low-CSWaP ultra-high vacuum technology operating without perturbative magnetic fields.
– Demonstrate clock operation with integrated enabling component devices.

DARPA PNT (Positioning Navigation and Timing) Goals

Achieve GPS-level timing and positioning performance without GPS
• Eliminate GPS as single point of failure
• Provide redundant capabilities and adaptable architectures
• Provide optimal PNT solution based on all available data sources

Outperform GPS for disruptive capabilities
• Ultra-stable clocks (short and long term) for electronic warfare, ISR, and communications
• Persistent PNT in environments where GPS was never designed for use: undersea, underground, indoors
• High precision PNT for cooperative effects (distributed electronic warfare, distributed ISR, autonomous formation flying, time transfer to disadvantaged users)

Specifically: Unaided navigation and timing error of 20 m and 1 microsecond at 1 hour
• Applications have requirements on Cost, Size, Weight, and Power (CSWaP)
• At present, we can meet performance requirements in an unmoving laboratory, with unlimited power, for about $1M.
• DARPA micro-PNT goal: 10 mm3, 2g, 1W
• Where are the off-ramps?
• For many platforms: 30,000 cm3, 10 kg, 10 W, + $10,000
• For most platforms: 1000 cm3, 1 kg, 1W, + $1000.
• For EVERY platform: 1 cm3, 100 g, 100 mW, $100

Gyroscope Technology Gaps

• MEMS Gyroscopes (current micro-PNT efforts: PASCAL, MRIG, TIMU)
• Super-low CSWaP (less than $50, less than 1 cm3 , less than 100 mW)
• Gap: Performance, mostly bandwidth, calibration drift and temperature sensitivity
• Atomic Gyroscopes (current micro-PNT efforts: C-SCAN)
• Superb stability and accuracy
• Viable candidate for navigation in FY2030
• Gap: Only lab demonstrations to date; enabling atomic physics components needed
• Optical Gyroscopes (e.g. RLG and iFOG)
• Good stability and accuracy
• Candidate technology for gyrocompassing
• Gap: Cost and SWaP ($25K, 500 cm3, 2W); MEMS-based solution?

SOURCES – DARPA

Beyond GPS with Atomic Gyroscopes, Light Pulsed Atomic Interferometry and 1000 times more precision with chip scale atomic clocks

Super accurate chip scale atomic clocks are a critical part of going beyond the Global Positioning System

This is for superior chip size atomic clocks. The U.S. has superior in lab and large atomic and laser clocks. They are shrinking them down and making them cheaper. Hundreds of bucks instead of millions. They have an atomic clock on a chip but they want it 1000 times more accurate.

Next Generation Atomic Clock (NGAC)

Atomic clock technology provides the high-performance backbone of timing and synchronization for DoD navigation, communications, Intelligence Surveillance and Reconnaissance (ISR), and Electronic Warfare (EW) systems. Prior DARPA investment in Chip-Scale Atomic Clock (CSAC) technology has led to recent demonstrations of enhanced DoD capabilities, enabled by the wide availability of atomic-quality timing in portable battery-powered applications. The Next-Generation Atomic Clock (NGAC) program will develop a next-generation chip-scale atomic clock, with 100X-1000X improvement in key performance parameters, by employing alternative approaches to atomic confinement and interrogation, with particular focus on developing the component technologies necessary to enable low-cost manufacturing and robust deployment in harsh DoD environments.

The NGAC program will develop a Chip-Scale Atomic Clock achieving temperature coefficient of frequency of less than one quadrillionth of a degree Celsius and frequency drift less than one trillions of a month. This will enable precise timing on low-CSWaP platforms with extended mission duration. In order to achieve these performance metrics, novel approaches to atomic confinement and interrogation will be explored and components developed.

DARPA FY 2016 Plans:
– Develop low-CSWaP (Cost, Size, Weight, and Power) application-specific laser devices, optical modulators, shutters, and isolators.
– Demonstrate integration of application-specific optical components into robust photonic integrated circuits. – Develop techniques for alkali metal vapor pressure control over the full DoD temperature range.
– Develop low-CSWaP ultra-high vacuum technology operating without perturbative magnetic fields.
– Demonstrate clock operation with integrated enabling component devices.

DARPA PNT (Positioning Navigation and Timing) Goals

Achieve GPS-level timing and positioning performance without GPS
• Eliminate GPS as single point of failure
• Provide redundant capabilities and adaptable architectures
• Provide optimal PNT solution based on all available data sources

Outperform GPS for disruptive capabilities
• Ultra-stable clocks (short and long term) for electronic warfare, ISR, and communications
• Persistent PNT in environments where GPS was never designed for use: undersea, underground, indoors
• High precision PNT for cooperative effects (distributed electronic warfare, distributed ISR, autonomous formation flying, time transfer to disadvantaged users)

Specifically: Unaided navigation and timing error of 20 m and 1 microsecond at 1 hour
• Applications have requirements on Cost, Size, Weight, and Power (CSWaP)
• At present, we can meet performance requirements in an unmoving laboratory, with unlimited power, for about $1M.
• DARPA micro-PNT goal: 10 mm3, 2g, 1W
• Where are the off-ramps?
• For many platforms: 30,000 cm3, 10 kg, 10 W, + $10,000
• For most platforms: 1000 cm3, 1 kg, 1W, + $1000.
• For EVERY platform: 1 cm3, 100 g, 100 mW, $100

Gyroscope Technology Gaps

• MEMS Gyroscopes (current micro-PNT efforts: PASCAL, MRIG, TIMU)
• Super-low CSWaP (less than $50, less than 1 cm3 , less than 100 mW)
• Gap: Performance, mostly bandwidth, calibration drift and temperature sensitivity
• Atomic Gyroscopes (current micro-PNT efforts: C-SCAN)
• Superb stability and accuracy
• Viable candidate for navigation in FY2030
• Gap: Only lab demonstrations to date; enabling atomic physics components needed
• Optical Gyroscopes (e.g. RLG and iFOG)
• Good stability and accuracy
• Candidate technology for gyrocompassing
• Gap: Cost and SWaP ($25K, 500 cm3, 2W); MEMS-based solution?

SOURCES – DARPA