Russian Thermobaric flame weapons are designed for urban warfare

In December, 2014 Russia created a new heavy weapons regiment based in Nizhniy Novgorod. Russia has three other three other new thermobaric units. They use russian thermobaric launchers which propel fuel-air rounds. The rounds disperse a flammable cloud, which then ignites. The main targets are bunkers, caves, and buildings — pretty much any enclosed space. These mixtures can burn, but they mainly kill through blast pressure and sucking out the oxygen from confined areas.

The U.S. Army Foreign Military Studies Office’s monthly newsletter, OE Watch, interprets Russia’s expansion of thermobaric units as a sign the Kremlin is preparing for urban warfare in the future.

Russia has a vehicle they call the TOS-1A Solntsepek flamethrower. The TOS-1 heavy flame thrower system is a 220mm 24-barrel multiple rocket launcher system which can fire rockets with thermobaric or incendiary warhead.

Infantry Rocket-Assisted Flamethrower RPO PDM-A (Shmel-M) is a newer high-precision assault weapon. It provides a variety of fire support missions in close fighting.
It has extended range and reduced weight.

* disable enemy manpower in the open and in buildings
* destroy lightly armored vehicles and cars;
* damage fortifications, ground-based or half-underground stone, brick or concrete buildings

It is a grenade launcher with an expendable rocket-assisted round with fuel air explosive filling and multi-use firing device equipped with an optical sight.
It is effectiveness in close fighting against anything but tanks. It is comparable to a 152-mm artillery high explosive fragmentation projectile.