Most of the solar panels in the world sit on rooftops at a fixed angle, so they miss out on capturing energy during parts of every day. Now researchers have shown that by cutting solar cells into specific designs using kirigami, a variation of origami which entails cutting in addition to folding, they can allow the cells to track the sun’s angle without having to tilt the whole panel. This could have a substantial payoff: solar panels with tracking mechanisms can generate 20 to 40 percent more energy per year than those without trackers
As shown in the video here, applying a specific kirigami cut creates strips in a solar cell. Pulling the two ends in opposite directions causes the strips to tilt and assume a desired angle. Crucially, the structure morphs in such a way that prevents the individual strips from casting shadows on the others, and the “waviness” of the new form does not detract from performance, says Max Shtein, a professor of materials science and engineering at the University of Michigan. Shtein led the research along with Stephen Forrest, also a professor of materials science and engineering at the University of Michigan.
Kirigami structures combined with thin-film active materials may be used as a simple, low-cost, lightweight and low-profile method to track solar position, thereby maximizing solar power generation. These systems provide benefits over conventional mechanisms, where additional heavy, bulky components and structural supports are often required to synchronize tracking between panels and accommodate forces due to wind loading. By eliminating the need for such components, kirigami serves to decrease installation costs and expose new markets for solar tracking, including widespread rooftop, mobile and spaceborne installations. Kirigami-enabled systems are also cost-effective and scalable in both fabrication and materials, and similar design rules may be extended for use in a wide range of optical and mechanical applications, including phased array radar and optical beam steering.
The kirigami-based approach makes it possible to generate more electricity while using the same amount of semiconducting material, and accomplishes this to nearly the same degree that conventional tracking systems do, says Shtein. Today’s tracking systems, featured in only a small portion of the world’s solar power installations, are cumbersome and can be costly. And they function by tilting the whole panel. That doesn’t work on most pitched rooftop systems, which account for more than 80 percent of all installations
Optical tracking is often combined with conventional flat panel solar cells to maximize electrical power generation over the course of a day. However, conventional trackers are complex and often require costly and cumbersome structural components to support system weight. Here we use kirigami (the art of paper cutting) to realize novel solar cells where tracking is integral to the structure at the substrate level. Specifically, an elegant cut pattern is made in thin-film gallium arsenide solar cells, which are then stretched to produce an array of tilted surface elements which can be controlled to within ±1°. We analyze the combined optical and mechanical properties of the tracking system, and demonstrate a mechanically robust system with optical tracking efficiencies matching conventional trackers. This design suggests a pathway towards enabling new applications for solar tracking, as well as inspiring a broader range of optoelectronic and mechanical devices.
SOURCES – Nature Communications, Technology Review