Xue Gong researched and wrote The Role of Chinese Corporate Players in China’s South China Sea Policy”. It shows extensive work by Chinese State-Owned-Enterprises (SEO) in developing infrastructure and tourism, as well as oil and gas, in the South China Sea.
China Communications Construction Corporation (CCCC) and its subsidiaries developed some of world’s largest dredgers.
CCCC has formed new units centered on the Paracels. They plan to expand in tourism, logistics, fishing and the ongoing construction business. There will be US$15 billion (S$20.6 billion) for investment across various sectors.
More than 70,000 tourists have traveled on four cruise ships that tour the South China Sea since the Paracels route was opened in April 2013, the Hainan Maritime Safety Administration said in January.
Some 680 commercial flights landed on the expanded runway at Woody Island in 2017.
China and Hainan is taking applications to develop South China Sea reefs for up to 50 year permits for tourism, aquaculture, amusement, development of salt and mineral industry, public welfare projects, and harbor and shipyard.
Developers will pay the government for using those islands.
China’s opening of its southernmost province to visa-free foreign tourism next month could make features in a nearby, widely disputed sea more accessible to curious travelers.
On May 1, 2018 Hainan province started allowing 30-day visa-free stays for people from 59 countries. This includes visiting the reefs of the South China Sea.
China is considering proposals aimed at creating a national marine park in the South China Sea.
Fiery Cross island (3000-meter runway and military facilities including missile and radar installations) cost around $11 billion.
China National Offshore Oil Corporation’s (CNOOC) has 45% of its oil and gas output from the South China Sea. China will spend over $32 billion developing the oil and gas.