* China’s military sent 2500 scientists to study in western universities
* Australia has nearly 50% foreign born scientists
* The US is dependent upon foreign born scientists and engineers including those from China
* China is ahead of Europe, Australia and even the USA in implementing hypersonic weapons and technology
* One the key examples cited in the study was a Chinese hypersonics researcher who co-wrote five papers with an Iranian born scientist who was in Norway
* Restricting chinese scientists from western universities will be delicate and tricky for the US and Australia
* Russia will use $5 billion to send 100,000 Russian students to study in foreign universities. This is forty times larger than what China’s PLA program was.
China’s overall science and research level
China has also observed a remarkable increase in the number of Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) graduates over the past three decades, providing the country with an abundant S&T workforce. In 2017, it was estimated that some 8 million students graduated from Chinese universities, a tenfold increase over a 20-year period, and twice the number graduating from U.S. universities. Some 313,000 students were enrolled in doctoral programs in 2014, along with 1.5 million in M.A. programs; among these, 58 percent (182,000) were science or engineering Ph.D. students, and 44 percent (666,000) were science or engineering M.A. students. China now boasts the largest number of laboratory scientists of any country, and its R&D spending outstrips that of the EU.
China’s share of global scientific papers increased from 6.4% in 2003 to 18.2% in 2013, second only to the United States (18.8%).
China’s share of scientific papers cited in the top 1 percent increased from 0.5% in 2002 to 0.8% in 2012, it remains well below that of the U.S. over the same time period (1.76% in 2002 and 1.94% in 2012). China as reached about half of the US level of top 1 percent of research papers.
The 2500 PLA researchers sent overseas is probably about 1% of the total numbers in China.
Australia’s study on PLA scientists in Western Universities
2,500 People’s Liberation Army (PLA) scientists have been placed in Western universities since 2008 to engage in research with international partners in these universities.
Chinese military sent about 300 military scientists to Australia—fewer than the 500 who have been sent to each of the U.S. and UK, and around the same number as were sent to Canada over the period.
Research areas Chinese military scientists have been involved in in Australia include satellite navigation, remote sensing, supercomputing, signal processing and cryptography.
The Australian study cites some specific cases where a hypersonic researcher from China worked in Norway. In Norway, he co-authored give papers on air-breathing hypersonic vehicles. The co-author was Iranian born Hamid Reza Karimi.
So one of the key examples, was a Chinese student co-wrote papers with an Iranian born scientist who emigrated to Germany and then to Norway. Hamid Reza Karimi was born in 1976.
Karimi received the B.Sc. (First Hons.) degree in power systems from the Sharif University of Technology, Tehran, Iran, in 1998, and the M.Sc. and Ph.D. (First Hons.) degrees in control systems engineering from the University of Tehran, Tehran, in 2001 and 2005, respectively. He is currently an associate professor of Applied Mechanics with the Department of Mechanical Engineering, Politecnico di Milano, Milan, Italy.
US high dependent on foreign born scientists and engineers
More than 60 percent of foreign-born scientists and engineers in the United States in 2009 were from Asia, according to Census Bureau data analyzed by PRB. Nearly one-fourth were from India, with another one-fifth from China, the Philippines, and Taiwan.
Foreign-born entrepreneurs helped start one-fourth of all new U.S. engineering and technology business established between 1995 and 2005, including Google and eBay. In high-tech Silicon Valley, California, more than one-half of business start-ups over that period involved a foreign-born scientist or engineer; one-fourth included an Indian or Chinese immigrants.
Russia’s study abroad program
Russia hosts more than 243,752 international students and considers international recruitment to be an important geopolitical goal. Russia is aiming to triple international students numbers to more than 700,000 by 2025.
The Russian government is putting $5 billion to fund domestic Russian students studying at leading foreign universities. This will fund 100,000 Russian students over the next ten years.
If the students decide to stay overseas after graduation, they would have to pay back to Russia all the money spent on their education and a fine twice as large as this amount.
The Russian Agency for Strategic Initiatives (ASI) and the Alumni Club of Harvard University have helped the Russian government to put the initiative together.