Time freezing camera at 10 trillion frames per second

INRS professor and ultrafast imaging specialist Jinyang Liang and his colleagues, led by Caltech’s Lihong Wang, have developed what they call T-CUP: the world’s fastest camera, capable of capturing ten trillion (10 13) frames per second. This new camera literally makes it possible to freeze time to see phenomena—and even light!—in extremely slow motion.

In recent years, the junction between innovations in non-linear optics and imaging has opened the door for new and highly efficient methods for microscopic analysis of dynamic phenomena in biology and physics. But to harness the potential of these methods, there needs to be a way to record images in real time at a very short temporal resolution—in a single exposure.

Using current imaging techniques, measurements taken with ultrashort laser pulses must be repeated many times, which is appropriate for some types of inert samples, but impossible for other more fragile ones. For example, laser-engraved glass can tolerate only a single laser pulse, leaving less than a picosecond to capture the results. In such a case, the imaging technique must be able to capture the entire process in real time.

Light and Science Applications – Single-shot real-time femtosecond imaging of temporal focusing

Compressed ultrafast photography (CUP) was a good starting point them. At 100 billion frames per second, this method approached, but did not meet, the specifications required to integrate femtosecond lasers. To improve on the concept, the new T-CUP system was developed based on a femtosecond streak camera that also incorporates a data acquisition type used in applications such as tomography.

“We knew that by using only a femtosecond streak camera, the image quality would be limited,” says Professor Lihong Wang, the Bren Professor of Medial Engineering and Electrical Engineering at Caltech and the Director of Caltech Optical Imaging Laboratory (COIL).. “So to improve this, we added another camera that acquires a static image. Combined with the image acquired by the femtosecond streak camera, we can use what is called a Radon transformation to obtain high-quality images while recording ten trillion frames per second.”

Setting the world record for real-time imaging speed, T-CUP can power a new generation of microscopes for biomedical, materials science, and other applications. This camera represents a fundamental shift, making it possible to analyze interactions between light and matter at an unparalleled temporal resolution.

The first time it was used, the ultrafast camera broke new ground by capturing the temporal focusing of a single femtosecond laser pulse in real time. This process was recorded in 25 frames taken at an interval of 400 femtoseconds and detailed the light pulse’s shape, intensity, and angle of inclination.

“It’s an achievement in itself,” says Jinyang Liang, the leading author of this work, who was an engineer in COIL when the research was conducted, “but we already see possibilities for increasing the speed to up to one quadrillion (10 15) frames per second!” Speeds like that are sure to offer insight into as-yet undetectable secrets of the interactions between light and matter.

While the concept of focusing usually applies to the spatial domain, it is equally applicable to the time domain. Real-time imaging of temporal focusing of single ultrashort laser pulses is of great significance in exploring the physics of the space–time duality and finding diverse applications. The drastic changes in the width and intensity of an ultrashort laser pulse during temporal focusing impose a requirement for femtosecond-level exposure to capture the instantaneous light patterns generated in this exquisite phenomenon. Thus far, established ultrafast imaging techniques either struggle to reach the desired exposure time or require repeatable measurements. We have developed single-shot 10-trillion-frame-per-second compressed ultrafast photography (T-CUP), which passively captures dynamic events with 100-fs frame intervals in a single camera exposure. The synergy between compressed sensing and the Radon transformation empowers T-CUP to significantly reduce the number of projections needed for reconstructing a high-quality three-dimensional spatiotemporal datacube. As the only currently available real-time, passive imaging modality with a femtosecond exposure time, T-CUP was used to record the first-ever movie of non-repeatable temporal focusing of a single ultrashort laser pulse in a dynamic scattering medium. T-CUP’s unprecedented ability to clearly reveal the complex evolution in the shape, intensity, and width of a temporally focused pulse in a single measurement paves the way for single-shot characterization of ultrashort pulses, experimental investigation of nonlinear light-matter interactions, and real-time wavefront engineering for deep-tissue light focusing.

129 thoughts on “Time freezing camera at 10 trillion frames per second”

  1. INRS professor and ultrafast imaging specialist Jinyang Liang… “and his colleagues, led by Caltech’s Lihong Wang, have developed” Another great technology development from “American” scientists which obviously will stay in USA and will help advance US science further. With Trump’s politics of encouraging and pressing on kicking out Chinese researchers from USA, there will be 30-50% less so called “american” innovation than it is now. When we read about all these great scientific and technological achievemets from US, which appear on sci-rech news websites so often, just check out surnames of authors or coauthors in papers. Suggestion for those who claim that Chinese can’t innovate. And because almost all there guys will go to China, US innovation will decelerate by a lot and chinese will be growing exponentially. China will need not 10 or more years to match US in tech and science but rather 5 or even less years.

    Reply
  2. INRS professor and ultrafast imaging specialist Jinyang Liang…””and his colleagues”” led by Caltech’s Lihong Wang”” have developed””””Another great technology development from “”””American”””” scientists which obviously will stay in USA and will help advance US science further.With Trump’s politics of encouraging and pressing on kicking out Chinese researchers from USA”””” there will be 30-50{22800fc54956079738b58e74e4dcd846757aa319aad70fcf90c97a58f3119a12} less so called “”””american”””” innovation than it is now. When we read about all these great scientific and technological achievemets from US”” which appear on sci-rech news websites so often just check out surnames of authors or coauthors in papers.Suggestion for those who claim that Chinese can’t innovate.And because almost all there guys will go to China”” US innovation will decelerate by a lot and chinese will be growing exponentially. China will need not 10 or more years to match US in tech and science but rather 5 or even less years.”””””””

    Reply
  3. Joseph and Chris I don’t think culture is a problem, it’s a myth. China is already innovating on a massive scale(and keep in mind that only 8-9% of Chinese have higher education). Since 2016 they’re producing more sci-tech papers than US. But because of China’s current level of overall development, large percentage of sci-tech brainpower is working on innovation connected with second industrial revolution. China is still in the middle of it. That’s why you see so many new breakthroughs, records and innovative developments in bridge, tunnels, roads construction, construction, manufacturing, logistics etc When they will finish 2nd industrial revolution phase, all these resources in form of $ and brainpower will move to cutting edge, more US like hi-tech innovation. The difference is in quality, US is still on top because it had more than 100 years of accumulation of wealth and knowledge. China started from scratch 40 years ago. But because they started from such low economical level and were so poor in 70’s-00’s decades, meaningful innovation started in 2010’s decade. In my opinion the only reason why we do not see as many cutting edge sci-tech breakthroughs from China as from US is the lack of cutting edge equipment and much lower accumulated knowledge. But they’re working on this problem and because of massive resources being devoted to it, they should achieve US level in next few years.

    Reply
  4. also i picked angry because how can you do an article about 10 trillion frames per second and then not show us anything. no video no pics.

    Reply
  5. the why dont china do it then? if they are actualy the ones doing it then why not stay at home and do it. oooohh thats right thay cant thats why they are in the usa gong to school and learning in the usa not in china. so keep on keeping on with ur beliefs. they are obviously tainted with biased opinion.

    Reply
  6. During the 19th century, a lot of the key innovations at Siemens were made by Germans working in their London office. They sent their misfits and mavericks to the UK where they prospered in a culture with a higher tolerance for eccentrics. Today, some fantastic discoveries are made by Chinese and Indian scientists and engineers working in the USA. But you can’t assume they would have made the same kind of progress working back in their home countries. Culture matters, as well as raw talent. Nature vs. Nurture. An innovation culture exists in Bangalore and Shenzen, but is at the same level as the USA? Perhaps one day. But not in the next 10 years.

    Reply
  7. the why dont china do it then? if they are actualy the ones doing it then why not stay at home and do it. oooohh thats right thay cant thats why they are in the usa gong to school and learning in the usa not in china. so keep on keeping on with ur beliefs. they are obviously tainted with biased opinion.

    Reply
  8. During the 19th century a lot of the key innovations at Siemens were made by Germans working in their London office. They sent their misfits and mavericks to the UK where they prospered in a culture with a higher tolerance for eccentrics. Today some fantastic discoveries are made by Chinese and Indian scientists and engineers working in the USA. But you can’t assume they would have made the same kind of progress working back in their home countries.Culture matters as well as raw talent. Nature vs. Nurture.An innovation culture exists in Bangalore and Shenzen but is at the same level as the USA?Perhaps one day. But not in the next 10 years.

    Reply
  9. @Chris: And here it is, the notoriously false dichotomy of “Nature vs. Nurture”. There is only nature and the things within it. Living things, including humans that have evolved over many millions of years within nature in the fires of evolution, show behaviour called “nurture”. It is part of the evolutionarily emerged phenomenon needed for the species homo sapiens and many many other species to maximize the chance of survival and future procreation of their offspring. “Culture” is something that’s downstream of “nurture”, which is hard-coded into our homo sapiens DNA as instincts. Just as e.g. termites do have a hard-coded instinct in their DNA to build amazing ‘skyscrapers’ with ventilation and such, homo sapiens does have a hard-coded instinct in its DNA to build tools, speak and think and create pretty specific types of shelter etc. The Chinese are simply homo sapiens as anyone else is. So-called copying is the foundation of life: Cells copy their DNA and create duplicates. What the Chinese or anyone else are doing is as natural as breathing and metabolism for life itself. There is no basis to be complacent and look down on what the Chinese have done and are still in the process of doing – copying the amazing technological DNA of all parts of the world and integrating that DNA into their culture. When they have finished ingesting these DNA strands, the abilities of their technological DNA might even be overwhelming. Their manpower and their work ethic alone make that a realistic expectation.

    Reply
  10. or use 10^15 …that notation is widely seen and I’ve always thought it was kind of standard (and some programming languages use it too)…

    Reply
  11. ok, how about showing a sequence of shots of something that moves insanely fast that clearly demonstrates this technology? i’m not sure what, but maybe a nuclear reaction or just a lightbulb coming on in a cloud of fog or similar…seeing the light actually coming out and hitting the different water molecules in the fog, the reflections coming off those….something along those lines.

    Reply
  12. it does not LITERALLY freeze time. it VIRTUALLY does so. for that statement to be true you would have to have time be a material able to be frozen, which would most likely only viable at 0k Next up even if it did STOP time, you wouldn’t know it because you are still existing in the time that is stopped Can we seriously just stop using the word literally? It is a word that has ONE job, to LITERALLY mean the thing you are saying. Make it into its literal antithesis, figurative, and you destroy the word. It has one, simple, definable purpose, to mean EXACTLY what is being said, and everybody fucks it up.

    Reply
  13. It’s called a camera. It takes “pictures” which, yes, are images of slices of time. I’m not saying anything against what you’re saying here, but it doesn’t matter if the image takes years to appear or if I wait years to develop some film from a camera, the result is the same….It’s an image.

    Reply
  14. Why is so difficult for you guys (and a dozen other scientific sites) to describe “10 to the 15th” as “10↑15”, instead of simply “10 15” ??? (Since, I guess, superscript 15 is either to difficult or too tiny !) ASCII “Alt 24” IS JUST NOT THAT TOUGH !!!

    Reply
  15. There were some science fiction stories from the mid-60s by Bob Shaw that centered around “slow glass”, which was a glass-like material with an extremely high refractive index that slowed light down so much that it could take years for the image to appear and the past could be viewed. There were other, earlier SF writers who explored similar things.

    Reply
  16. after living in South Korea for 10 years and dealing with many young minds (kindergarden all the way through post-docs) i can tell you that there is no question that culture is a huge problem…these people can’t think an original thought to save their lives and most of them at least before the Master’s level in college never wrote one single composition involving original and critical thinking…yes the kind of essays American students start writing in what(?) first grade and never stop writing. it is totally true…and Koreans admit that it is too.

    Reply
  17. or use 10^15 …that notation is widely seen and I’ve always thought it was kind of standard (and some programming languages use it too)…

    Reply
  18. ok how about showing a sequence of shots of something that moves insanely fast that clearly demonstrates this technology? i’m not sure what but maybe a nuclear reaction or just a lightbulb coming on in a cloud of fog or similar…seeing the light actually coming out and hitting the different water molecules in the fog the reflections coming off those….something along those lines.

    Reply
  19. it does not LITERALLY freeze time. it VIRTUALLY does so.for that statement to be true you would have to have time be a material able to be frozen which would most likely only viable at 0kNext up even if it did STOP time you wouldn’t know it because you are still existing in the time that is stoppedCan we seriously just stop using the word literally? It is a word that has ONE job to LITERALLY mean the thing you are saying. Make it into its literal antithesis figurative and you destroy the word. It has one simple definable purpose to mean EXACTLY what is being said and everybody fucks it up.

    Reply
  20. It’s called a camera. It takes pictures”” which”” yes are images of slices of time. I’m not saying anything against what you’re saying here but it doesn’t matter if the image takes years to appear or if I wait years to develop some film from a camera”” the result is the same….It’s an image.”””

    Reply
  21. Why is so difficult for you guys (and a dozen other scientific sites) to describe 10 to the 15th”” as “”””10↑15″””””””” instead of simply “”””10 15″””” ??? (Since”” I guess”” superscript 15 is either to difficult or too tiny !) ASCII “”””Alt 24″””” IS JUST NOT THAT TOUGH !!!”””””””

    Reply
  22. There were some science fiction stories from the mid-60s by Bob Shaw that centered around slow glass””” which was a glass-like material with an extremely high refractive index that slowed light down so much that it could take years for the image to appear and the past could be viewed. There were other”” earlier SF writers who explored similar things.”””

    Reply
  23. see my comment. Brian could have/should embedded the videos or at least the frame shots. BTW, we are talking about a very small sensor area capturing photons as they emerge, become detectable. You can’t “see” the actual image unless you really scale this up. I think molecular-level is probably next.

    Reply
  24. Pretty neat, but need to cut through the hyperbole. For those interested, here is the paper and go to the Supplementary Material where they have videos of the results. It’s open source. doi.org/10.1038/s41377-018-0044-7 They have tracked how light appears as it hits the sensor. You can’t “see” the object of course because not enough light has reached the sensor. Bear in mind it takes light about 33.3 picoseconds (trillionths of sec) to travel one centimeter (in a vacuum). Given their equipment detects light hitting the sensor at 10 Tfps the results are pretty good. Still very “crude”, but hey, it’s basic science. I can imagine the practical uses. E.g., how alloys actually combine themselves under various conditions, or how enzymes react (there are some nice T-CUP captures of this) and other biological interactions.

    Reply
  25. after living in South Korea for 10 years, and dealing with many young minds (kindergarden all the way through post-docs) i can tell you that there is no question that culture is a huge problem…these people can’t think an original thought to save their lives, and most of them, at least before the Master’s level in college, never wrote one single composition involving original and critical thinking…yes, the kind of essays American students start writing in, what(?) first grade and never stop writing. it is totally true…and Koreans admit that it is too.

    Reply
  26. see my comment. Brian could have/should embedded the videos or at least the frame shots. BTW we are talking about a very small sensor area capturing photons as they emerge become detectable. You can’t see”” the actual image unless you really scale this up. I think molecular-level is probably next.”””

    Reply
  27. Pretty neat but need to cut through the hyperbole. For those interested here is the paper and go to the Supplementary Material where they have videos of the results. It’s open source.doi.org/10.1038/s41377-018-0044-7They have tracked how light appears as it hits the sensor. You can’t see”” the object of course because not enough light has reached the sensor. Bear in mind it takes light about 33.3 picoseconds (trillionths of sec) to travel one centimeter (in a vacuum). Given their equipment detects light hitting the sensor at 10 Tfps the results are pretty good. Still very “”””crude”””””” but hey it’s basic science.I can imagine the practical uses. E.g. how alloys actually combine themselves under various conditions”” or how enzymes react (there are some nice T-CUP captures of this) and other biological interactions.”””

    Reply
  28. @Chris:And here it is the notoriously false dichotomy of Nature vs. Nurture””.There is only nature and the things within it. Living things”” including humans that have evolved over many millions of years within nature in the fires of evolution”” show behaviour called “”””nurture””””. It is part of the evolutionarily emerged phenomenon needed for the species homo sapiens and many many other species to maximize the chance of survival and future procreation of their offspring. “”””Culture”””” is something that’s downstream of “”””nurture”””””” which is hard-coded into our homo sapiens DNA as instincts. Just as e.g. termites do have a hard-coded instinct in their DNA to build amazing ‘skyscrapers’ with ventilation and such homo sapiens does have a hard-coded instinct in its DNA to build tools speak and think and create pretty specific types of shelter etc.The Chinese are simply homo sapiens as anyone else is. So-called copying is the foundation of life: Cells copy their DNA and create duplicates. What the Chinese or anyone else are doing is as natural as breathing and metabolism for life itself. There is no basis to be complacent and look down on what the Chinese have done and are still in the process of doing – copying the amazing technological DNA of all parts of the world and integrating that DNA into their culture. When they have finished ingesting these DNA strands”” the abilities of their technological DNA might even be overwhelming. Their manpower and their work ethic alone make that a realistic expectation.”””

    Reply
  29. But they DON’T use superscripts. That’s the point. They cut-and-paste superscripts but paste it as plain text and the superscript loses all its superpowers.

    Reply
  30. literally”” “”””possible”””” “”””freeze”””” “”””time”””” At least one”” but up to all”” of these words is/are not correct.”””

    Reply
  31. But they DON’T use superscripts. That’s the point. They cut-and-paste superscripts but paste it as plain text and the superscript loses all its superpowers.

    Reply
  32. literally”” “”””possible”””” “”””freeze”””” “”””time”””” At least one”” but up to all”” of these words is/are not correct.”””

    Reply
  33. But they DON’T use superscripts. That’s the point. They cut-and-paste superscripts but paste it as plain text and the superscript loses all its superpowers.

    Reply
  34. But they DON’T use superscripts. That’s the point. They cut-and-paste superscripts but paste it as plain text and the superscript loses all its superpowers.

    Reply
  35. see my comment. Brian could have/should embedded the videos or at least the frame shots. BTW, we are talking about a very small sensor area capturing photons as they emerge, become detectable. You can’t “see” the actual image unless you really scale this up. I think molecular-level is probably next.

    Reply
  36. see my comment. Brian could have/should embedded the videos or at least the frame shots. BTW we are talking about a very small sensor area capturing photons as they emerge become detectable. You can’t see”” the actual image unless you really scale this up. I think molecular-level is probably next.”””

    Reply
  37. Pretty neat, but need to cut through the hyperbole. For those interested, here is the paper and go to the Supplementary Material where they have videos of the results. It’s open source. doi.org/10.1038/s41377-018-0044-7 They have tracked how light appears as it hits the sensor. You can’t “see” the object of course because not enough light has reached the sensor. Bear in mind it takes light about 33.3 picoseconds (trillionths of sec) to travel one centimeter (in a vacuum). Given their equipment detects light hitting the sensor at 10 Tfps the results are pretty good. Still very “crude”, but hey, it’s basic science. I can imagine the practical uses. E.g., how alloys actually combine themselves under various conditions, or how enzymes react (there are some nice T-CUP captures of this) and other biological interactions.

    Reply
  38. Pretty neat but need to cut through the hyperbole. For those interested here is the paper and go to the Supplementary Material where they have videos of the results. It’s open source.doi.org/10.1038/s41377-018-0044-7They have tracked how light appears as it hits the sensor. You can’t see”” the object of course because not enough light has reached the sensor. Bear in mind it takes light about 33.3 picoseconds (trillionths of sec) to travel one centimeter (in a vacuum). Given their equipment detects light hitting the sensor at 10 Tfps the results are pretty good. Still very “”””crude”””””” but hey it’s basic science.I can imagine the practical uses. E.g. how alloys actually combine themselves under various conditions”” or how enzymes react (there are some nice T-CUP captures of this) and other biological interactions.”””

    Reply
  39. @Chris: And here it is, the notoriously false dichotomy of “Nature vs. Nurture”. There is only nature and the things within it. Living things, including humans that have evolved over many millions of years within nature in the fires of evolution, show behaviour called “nurture”. It is part of the evolutionarily emerged phenomenon needed for the species homo sapiens and many many other species to maximize the chance of survival and future procreation of their offspring. “Culture” is something that’s downstream of “nurture”, which is hard-coded into our homo sapiens DNA as instincts. Just as e.g. termites do have a hard-coded instinct in their DNA to build amazing ‘skyscrapers’ with ventilation and such, homo sapiens does have a hard-coded instinct in its DNA to build tools, speak and think and create pretty specific types of shelter etc. The Chinese are simply homo sapiens as anyone else is. So-called copying is the foundation of life: Cells copy their DNA and create duplicates. What the Chinese or anyone else are doing is as natural as breathing and metabolism for life itself. There is no basis to be complacent and look down on what the Chinese have done and are still in the process of doing – copying the amazing technological DNA of all parts of the world and integrating that DNA into their culture. When they have finished ingesting these DNA strands, the abilities of their technological DNA might even be overwhelming. Their manpower and their work ethic alone make that a realistic expectation.

    Reply
  40. @Chris:And here it is the notoriously false dichotomy of Nature vs. Nurture””.There is only nature and the things within it. Living things”” including humans that have evolved over many millions of years within nature in the fires of evolution”” show behaviour called “”””nurture””””. It is part of the evolutionarily emerged phenomenon needed for the species homo sapiens and many many other species to maximize the chance of survival and future procreation of their offspring. “”””Culture”””” is something that’s downstream of “”””nurture”””””” which is hard-coded into our homo sapiens DNA as instincts. Just as e.g. termites do have a hard-coded instinct in their DNA to build amazing ‘skyscrapers’ with ventilation and such homo sapiens does have a hard-coded instinct in its DNA to build tools speak and think and create pretty specific types of shelter etc.The Chinese are simply homo sapiens as anyone else is. So-called copying is the foundation of life: Cells copy their DNA and create duplicates. What the Chinese or anyone else are doing is as natural as breathing and metabolism for life itself. There is no basis to be complacent and look down on what the Chinese have done and are still in the process of doing – copying the amazing technological DNA of all parts of the world and integrating that DNA into their culture. When they have finished ingesting these DNA strands”” the abilities of their technological DNA might even be overwhelming. Their manpower and their work ethic alone make that a realistic expectation.”””

    Reply
  41. after living in South Korea for 10 years, and dealing with many young minds (kindergarden all the way through post-docs) i can tell you that there is no question that culture is a huge problem…these people can’t think an original thought to save their lives, and most of them, at least before the Master’s level in college, never wrote one single composition involving original and critical thinking…yes, the kind of essays American students start writing in, what(?) first grade and never stop writing. it is totally true…and Koreans admit that it is too.

    Reply
  42. after living in South Korea for 10 years and dealing with many young minds (kindergarden all the way through post-docs) i can tell you that there is no question that culture is a huge problem…these people can’t think an original thought to save their lives and most of them at least before the Master’s level in college never wrote one single composition involving original and critical thinking…yes the kind of essays American students start writing in what(?) first grade and never stop writing. it is totally true…and Koreans admit that it is too.

    Reply
  43. or use 10^15 …that notation is widely seen and I’ve always thought it was kind of standard (and some programming languages use it too)…

    Reply
  44. or use 10^15 …that notation is widely seen and I’ve always thought it was kind of standard (and some programming languages use it too)…

    Reply
  45. ok, how about showing a sequence of shots of something that moves insanely fast that clearly demonstrates this technology? i’m not sure what, but maybe a nuclear reaction or just a lightbulb coming on in a cloud of fog or similar…seeing the light actually coming out and hitting the different water molecules in the fog, the reflections coming off those….something along those lines.

    Reply
  46. ok how about showing a sequence of shots of something that moves insanely fast that clearly demonstrates this technology? i’m not sure what but maybe a nuclear reaction or just a lightbulb coming on in a cloud of fog or similar…seeing the light actually coming out and hitting the different water molecules in the fog the reflections coming off those….something along those lines.

    Reply
  47. it does not LITERALLY freeze time. it VIRTUALLY does so. for that statement to be true you would have to have time be a material able to be frozen, which would most likely only viable at 0k Next up even if it did STOP time, you wouldn’t know it because you are still existing in the time that is stopped Can we seriously just stop using the word literally? It is a word that has ONE job, to LITERALLY mean the thing you are saying. Make it into its literal antithesis, figurative, and you destroy the word. It has one, simple, definable purpose, to mean EXACTLY what is being said, and everybody fucks it up.

    Reply
  48. it does not LITERALLY freeze time. it VIRTUALLY does so.for that statement to be true you would have to have time be a material able to be frozen which would most likely only viable at 0kNext up even if it did STOP time you wouldn’t know it because you are still existing in the time that is stoppedCan we seriously just stop using the word literally? It is a word that has ONE job to LITERALLY mean the thing you are saying. Make it into its literal antithesis figurative and you destroy the word. It has one simple definable purpose to mean EXACTLY what is being said and everybody fucks it up.

    Reply
  49. It’s called a camera. It takes “pictures” which, yes, are images of slices of time. I’m not saying anything against what you’re saying here, but it doesn’t matter if the image takes years to appear or if I wait years to develop some film from a camera, the result is the same….It’s an image.

    Reply
  50. It’s called a camera. It takes pictures”” which”” yes are images of slices of time. I’m not saying anything against what you’re saying here but it doesn’t matter if the image takes years to appear or if I wait years to develop some film from a camera”” the result is the same….It’s an image.”””

    Reply
  51. Why is so difficult for you guys (and a dozen other scientific sites) to describe “10 to the 15th” as “10↑15”, instead of simply “10 15” ??? (Since, I guess, superscript 15 is either to difficult or too tiny !) ASCII “Alt 24” IS JUST NOT THAT TOUGH !!!

    Reply
  52. Why is so difficult for you guys (and a dozen other scientific sites) to describe 10 to the 15th”” as “”””10↑15″””””””” instead of simply “”””10 15″””” ??? (Since”” I guess”” superscript 15 is either to difficult or too tiny !) ASCII “”””Alt 24″””” IS JUST NOT THAT TOUGH !!!”””””””

    Reply
  53. There were some science fiction stories from the mid-60s by Bob Shaw that centered around “slow glass”, which was a glass-like material with an extremely high refractive index that slowed light down so much that it could take years for the image to appear and the past could be viewed. There were other, earlier SF writers who explored similar things.

    Reply
  54. There were some science fiction stories from the mid-60s by Bob Shaw that centered around slow glass””” which was a glass-like material with an extremely high refractive index that slowed light down so much that it could take years for the image to appear and the past could be viewed. There were other”” earlier SF writers who explored similar things.”””

    Reply
  55. Joseph and Chris I don’t think culture is a problem, it’s a myth. China is already innovating on a massive scale(and keep in mind that only 8-9% of Chinese have higher education). Since 2016 they’re producing more sci-tech papers than US. But because of China’s current level of overall development, large percentage of sci-tech brainpower is working on innovation connected with second industrial revolution. China is still in the middle of it. That’s why you see so many new breakthroughs, records and innovative developments in bridge, tunnels, roads construction, construction, manufacturing, logistics etc When they will finish 2nd industrial revolution phase, all these resources in form of $ and brainpower will move to cutting edge, more US like hi-tech innovation. The difference is in quality, US is still on top because it had more than 100 years of accumulation of wealth and knowledge. China started from scratch 40 years ago. But because they started from such low economical level and were so poor in 70’s-00’s decades, meaningful innovation started in 2010’s decade. In my opinion the only reason why we do not see as many cutting edge sci-tech breakthroughs from China as from US is the lack of cutting edge equipment and much lower accumulated knowledge. But they’re working on this problem and because of massive resources being devoted to it, they should achieve US level in next few years.

    Reply
  56. Joseph and ChrisI don’t think culture is a problem it’s a myth.China is already innovating on a massive scale(and keep in mind that only 8-9{22800fc54956079738b58e74e4dcd846757aa319aad70fcf90c97a58f3119a12} of Chinese have higher education). Since 2016 they’re producing more sci-tech papers than US.But because of China’s current level of overall development large percentage of sci-tech brainpower is working on innovation connected with second industrial revolution. China is still in the middle of it.That’s why you see so many new breakthroughs records and innovative developments in bridge tunnels roads construction construction manufacturing logistics etcWhen they will finish 2nd industrial revolution phase all these resources in form of $ and brainpower will move to cutting edge more US like hi-tech innovation. The difference is in quality US is still on top because it had more than 100 years of accumulation of wealth and knowledge. China started from scratch 40 years ago.But because they started from such low economical level and were so poor in 70’s-00’s decades meaningful innovation started in 2010’s decade. In my opinion the only reason why we do not see as many cutting edge sci-tech breakthroughs from China as from US is the lack of cutting edge equipment and much lower accumulated knowledge. But they’re working on this problem and because of massive resources being devoted to it they should achieve US level in next few years.

    Reply
  57. also i picked angry because how can you do an article about 10 trillion frames per second and then not show us anything. no video no pics.

    Reply
  58. also i picked angry because how can you do an article about 10 trillion frames per second and then not show us anything. no video no pics.

    Reply
  59. the why dont china do it then? if they are actualy the ones doing it then why not stay at home and do it. oooohh thats right thay cant thats why they are in the usa gong to school and learning in the usa not in china. so keep on keeping on with ur beliefs. they are obviously tainted with biased opinion.

    Reply
  60. the why dont china do it then? if they are actualy the ones doing it then why not stay at home and do it. oooohh thats right thay cant thats why they are in the usa gong to school and learning in the usa not in china. so keep on keeping on with ur beliefs. they are obviously tainted with biased opinion.

    Reply
  61. During the 19th century, a lot of the key innovations at Siemens were made by Germans working in their London office. They sent their misfits and mavericks to the UK where they prospered in a culture with a higher tolerance for eccentrics. Today, some fantastic discoveries are made by Chinese and Indian scientists and engineers working in the USA. But you can’t assume they would have made the same kind of progress working back in their home countries. Culture matters, as well as raw talent. Nature vs. Nurture. An innovation culture exists in Bangalore and Shenzen, but is at the same level as the USA? Perhaps one day. But not in the next 10 years.

    Reply
  62. During the 19th century a lot of the key innovations at Siemens were made by Germans working in their London office. They sent their misfits and mavericks to the UK where they prospered in a culture with a higher tolerance for eccentrics. Today some fantastic discoveries are made by Chinese and Indian scientists and engineers working in the USA. But you can’t assume they would have made the same kind of progress working back in their home countries.Culture matters as well as raw talent. Nature vs. Nurture.An innovation culture exists in Bangalore and Shenzen but is at the same level as the USA?Perhaps one day. But not in the next 10 years.

    Reply
  63. INRS professor and ultrafast imaging specialist Jinyang Liang… “and his colleagues, led by Caltech’s Lihong Wang, have developed” Another great technology development from “American” scientists which obviously will stay in USA and will help advance US science further. With Trump’s politics of encouraging and pressing on kicking out Chinese researchers from USA, there will be 30-50% less so called “american” innovation than it is now. When we read about all these great scientific and technological achievemets from US, which appear on sci-rech news websites so often, just check out surnames of authors or coauthors in papers. Suggestion for those who claim that Chinese can’t innovate. And because almost all there guys will go to China, US innovation will decelerate by a lot and chinese will be growing exponentially. China will need not 10 or more years to match US in tech and science but rather 5 or even less years.

    Reply
  64. INRS professor and ultrafast imaging specialist Jinyang Liang…””and his colleagues”” led by Caltech’s Lihong Wang”” have developed””””Another great technology development from “”””American”””” scientists which obviously will stay in USA and will help advance US science further.With Trump’s politics of encouraging and pressing on kicking out Chinese researchers from USA”””” there will be 30-50{22800fc54956079738b58e74e4dcd846757aa319aad70fcf90c97a58f3119a12} less so called “”””american”””” innovation than it is now. When we read about all these great scientific and technological achievemets from US”” which appear on sci-rech news websites so often just check out surnames of authors or coauthors in papers.Suggestion for those who claim that Chinese can’t innovate.And because almost all there guys will go to China”” US innovation will decelerate by a lot and chinese will be growing exponentially. China will need not 10 or more years to match US in tech and science but rather 5 or even less years.”””””””

    Reply
  65. see my comment. Brian could have/should embedded the videos or at least the frame shots. BTW, we are talking about a very small sensor area capturing photons as they emerge, become detectable. You can’t “see” the actual image unless you really scale this up. I think molecular-level is probably next.

    Reply
  66. Pretty neat, but need to cut through the hyperbole. For those interested, here is the paper and go to the Supplementary Material where they have videos of the results. It’s open source.
    doi.org/10.1038/s41377-018-0044-7

    They have tracked how light appears as it hits the sensor. You can’t “see” the object of course because not enough light has reached the sensor. Bear in mind it takes light about 33.3 picoseconds (trillionths of sec) to travel one centimeter (in a vacuum). Given their equipment detects light hitting the sensor at 10 Tfps the results are pretty good. Still very “crude”, but hey, it’s basic science.

    I can imagine the practical uses. E.g., how alloys actually combine themselves under various conditions, or how enzymes react (there are some nice T-CUP captures of this) and other biological interactions.

    Reply
  67. @Chris:

    And here it is, the notoriously false dichotomy of “Nature vs. Nurture”.

    There is only nature and the things within it. Living things, including humans that have evolved over many millions of years within nature in the fires of evolution, show behaviour called “nurture”. It is part of the evolutionarily emerged phenomenon needed for the species homo sapiens and many many other species to maximize the chance of survival and future procreation of their offspring. “Culture” is something that’s downstream of “nurture”, which is hard-coded into our homo sapiens DNA as instincts. Just as e.g. termites do have a hard-coded instinct in their DNA to build amazing ‘skyscrapers’ with ventilation and such, homo sapiens does have a hard-coded instinct in its DNA to build tools, speak and think and create pretty specific types of shelter etc.

    The Chinese are simply homo sapiens as anyone else is. So-called copying is the foundation of life: Cells copy their DNA and create duplicates. What the Chinese or anyone else are doing is as natural as breathing and metabolism for life itself. There is no basis to be complacent and look down on what the Chinese have done and are still in the process of doing – copying the amazing technological DNA of all parts of the world and integrating that DNA into their culture. When they have finished ingesting these DNA strands, the abilities of their technological DNA might even be overwhelming. Their manpower and their work ethic alone make that a realistic expectation.

    Reply
  68. after living in South Korea for 10 years, and dealing with many young minds (kindergarden all the way through post-docs) i can tell you that there is no question that culture is a huge problem…these people can’t think an original thought to save their lives, and most of them, at least before the Master’s level in college, never wrote one single composition involving original and critical thinking…yes, the kind of essays American students start writing in, what(?) first grade and never stop writing. it is totally true…and Koreans admit that it is too.

    Reply
  69. ok, how about showing a sequence of shots of something that moves insanely fast that clearly demonstrates this technology? i’m not sure what, but maybe a nuclear reaction or just a lightbulb coming on in a cloud of fog or similar…seeing the light actually coming out and hitting the different water molecules in the fog, the reflections coming off those….something along those lines.

    Reply
  70. it does not LITERALLY freeze time. it VIRTUALLY does so.
    for that statement to be true you would have to have time be a material able to be frozen, which would most likely only viable at 0k
    Next up even if it did STOP time, you wouldn’t know it because you are still existing in the time that is stopped
    Can we seriously just stop using the word literally? It is a word that has ONE job, to LITERALLY mean the thing you are saying. Make it into its literal antithesis, figurative, and you destroy the word. It has one, simple, definable purpose, to mean EXACTLY what is being said, and everybody fucks it up.

    Reply
  71. It’s called a camera. It takes “pictures” which, yes, are images of slices of time. I’m not saying anything against what you’re saying here, but it doesn’t matter if the image takes years to appear or if I wait years to develop some film from a camera, the result is the same….It’s an image.

    Reply
  72. Why is so difficult for you guys (and a dozen other scientific sites) to describe “10 to the 15th” as “10↑15”, instead of simply “10 15” ??? (Since, I guess, superscript 15 is either to difficult or too tiny !) ASCII “Alt 24” IS JUST NOT THAT TOUGH !!!

    Reply
  73. There were some science fiction stories from the mid-60s by Bob Shaw that centered around “slow glass”, which was a glass-like material with an extremely high refractive index that slowed light down so much that it could take years for the image to appear and the past could be viewed. There were other, earlier SF writers who explored similar things.

    Reply
  74. Joseph and Chris

    I don’t think culture is a problem, it’s a myth.
    China is already innovating on a massive scale(and keep in mind that only 8-9% of Chinese have higher education). Since 2016 they’re producing more sci-tech papers than US.

    But because of China’s current level of overall development, large percentage of sci-tech brainpower is working on innovation connected with second industrial revolution. China is still in the middle of it.

    That’s why you see so many new breakthroughs, records and innovative developments in bridge, tunnels, roads construction, construction, manufacturing,
    logistics etc

    When they will finish 2nd industrial revolution phase, all these resources in form of $ and brainpower will move to cutting edge, more US like hi-tech innovation.

    The difference is in quality, US is still on top because it had more than 100 years of accumulation of wealth and knowledge. China started from scratch 40 years ago.

    But because they started from such low economical level and were so poor in 70’s-00’s decades, meaningful innovation started in 2010’s decade.

    In my opinion the only reason why we do not see as many cutting edge sci-tech breakthroughs from China as from US is the lack of cutting edge equipment and much lower accumulated knowledge.
    But they’re working on this problem and because of massive resources being devoted to it, they should achieve US level in next few years.

    Reply
  75. the why dont china do it then? if they are actualy the ones doing it then why not stay at home and do it. oooohh thats right thay cant thats why they are in the usa gong to school and learning in the usa not in china. so keep on keeping on with ur beliefs. they are obviously tainted with biased opinion.

    Reply
  76. During the 19th century, a lot of the key innovations at Siemens were made by Germans working in their London office. They sent their misfits and mavericks to the UK where they prospered in a culture with a higher tolerance for eccentrics.

    Today, some fantastic discoveries are made by Chinese and Indian scientists and engineers working in the USA. But you can’t assume they would have made the same kind of progress working back in their home countries.

    Culture matters, as well as raw talent. Nature vs. Nurture.

    An innovation culture exists in Bangalore and Shenzen, but is at the same level as the USA?
    Perhaps one day. But not in the next 10 years.

    Reply
  77. “INRS professor and ultrafast imaging specialist Jinyang Liang…
    “and his colleagues, led by Caltech’s Lihong Wang, have developed”

    Another great technology development from “American” scientists which obviously will stay in USA and will help advance US science further.

    With Trump’s politics of encouraging and pressing on kicking out Chinese researchers from USA, there will be 30-50% less so called “american” innovation than it is now. When we read about all these great scientific and technological achievemets from US, which appear on sci-rech news websites so often, just check out surnames of authors or coauthors in papers.

    Suggestion for those who claim that Chinese can’t innovate.

    And because almost all there guys will go to China, US innovation will decelerate by a lot and chinese will be growing exponentially. China will need not 10 or more years to match US in tech and science but rather 5 or even less years.

    Reply

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