Antiaging Treatments that are Closest to FDA Approval

There are a few dozen antiaging rejuvenation treatments that are progressing through pre-clinical and clinical trials. is tracking the antiaging rejuvenation treatments on a rejuvenation roadmap.

Two treatments are in phase 3 clinical trial.

Samumed is developing drugs for multiple degenerative diseases, including osteoarthritis, alopecia (baldness), and degenerative disc disease. While these therapies differ from each other, they all focus on restoring the Wnt signaling pathway. Samumed has multiple therapies in human clinical trials, two of which have returned positive results from Phase 2 testing. If these therapies succeed in Phase 3 trials and are found to be effective in clinical practice, they will demonstrate the viability of targeting signaling pathways, potentially paving the way for a broad range of similar therapies. In 2018, Samumed raised $438 million in funding.

Mitotech S.A, based in Luxembourg, is developing SkQ1, a powerful antioxidant that directly targets mitochondria.

There are ten antiaging rejuvenation treatments in phase 2 clinical trials.

UNITY is a biotech company working on the removal of senescent cells, which accumulate with age, drive chronic inflammation, and spur various age-related diseases. UBX0101, is designed to treat musculoskeletal disease, with an initial focus on osteoarthritis. The candidate is a uniquely senolytic small molecule inhibitor of the MDM2/p53 protein interaction. Disruption of this protein interaction triggers the destruction of senescent cells.

The Mayo Clinic, in partnership with the Scripps Research Institute, has discovered a combination of drugs (dasatinib and quercetin) that destroy harmful senescent cells, greatly increasing healthspan in a mouse model. These drugs, called senolytics, offer a novel method of treating age-related diseases.

University of Minnesota Medical School faculty member Paul D. Robbins and Laura J. Niedernhofer and Mayo Clinic investigators James L. Kirkland and Tamara Tchkonia published “Fisetin is a senotherapeutic that extends health and lifespan” in the journal EBioMedicine in October 2018 Fisetin is undergoing human clinical trials to test its ability to remove harmful senescent cells which accumulate with age. A phase 2 study to address age-related frailty was conducted from February 2018 to December 2019 with some positive initial results.

Dr. Greg Fahy has been working on rejuvenation of the thymus for a number of years, and, in 2015, conducted a small-scale human trial to see if the earlier results in animals would translate to people. Human growth hormone (HGH) and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) are in phase 2 to see if they can regrow the thymus.

In 2017 a phase 2 clinical trial for Mesenchymal stem cell (MSCs) therapy to treat age-related frailty was launched.

Longeveron is developing allogeneic human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) for a variety of diseases, some of which are age-related. Currently, the company is in multiple clinical trial stages with its flagship product, including a phase 2b trial for frailty, a phase 1 trial for Alzheimer’s disease, a phase 1/2 trial for vaccine immune response, a phase 2b trial for metabolic syndrome, and a phase 1/2 trial for hypoplastic left heart syndrome in infants to be given alongside standard heart surgery.

Rejenevie Therapeutics is developing a heterochronic cell culture model in order to stimulate the function of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). The goal is to promote the rejuvenation of aging cells by providing them with youthful blood factors, a technique that is related to parabiosis, the connection of old and young vascular systems.

Stealth BioTherapeutics is investigating the potential of elamipretide, a drug that has been shown to bind to the inner mitochondrial membrane, aiding in mitochondrial respiration and ATP production while protecting against reactive oxygen species (ROS). A phase 3 trial did not achieve desired results but they are still working on it.

ResTORbio, Inc. is developing RTB101, an oral medication that inhibits target of rapamycin complex 1 (TORC1). Concluding the successful Phase 2 and 2b studies the company has agreed with the FDA to proceed to a large scale phase 3 clinical trial scheduled to begin later in 2019. On Friday 15th November 2019, resTORbio announced that the phase 3 trial had failed to meet its primary goal for the reduction of respiratory tract infections in people aged 65 and older. This is a setback for the approach. They are continuing to test the drug for other age-related diseases including Parkinson’s and the company expects to release data from its mid-stage Parkinson’s trial in mid-2020.

Alkahest is currently developing multiple therapies based on these plasma fractions. AKST4290 is in a phase 2 trial for macular degeneration and will soon be in phase 2 trials for neurodegenerative disease and inflammatory disease. GRF6019 and GRF6021 are in phase 2 trials for neurodegenerative diseases, including Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s,

45 thoughts on “Antiaging Treatments that are Closest to FDA Approval”

  1. You can’t go 100% with what you get back from Promethease. You may have the genes that protect your liver from alcohol damage…but alcohol could easily damage other organs and tissues. Or you may have genes that protect you from lung cancer from cigarettes. That may not protect you from emphysema when you are 80, or protect your wife/husband from second hand smoke and lung cancer.
    And it may list 10 good genes vs some condition and 1 or 2 bad ones…but it is not addition. Genes interact in ways more similar to a computer program than a financial spreadsheet. That means, in reality, there is still a huge amount of guesswork. And it will take AI to crack.
    It makes the most sense to try to work to dodge all the risks unless you quality of life is intolerable as a result.
    For example, I have looked at the fine detail of what kills people in the US. Tripping over a big dog is very common and can easily lead to your death. However, for some people, having a big dog is like having a beloved child in the house and brings great joy to their lives. For others, a small dog provides all the same benefits, so it is a good move for them to get a little dog.
    Long life can’t be the only goal.

  2. Unless you are very rich DNA editing is pretty much off the table. There is a woman who is experimenting on herself. Found it:
    She made a more extreme effort to extend her telomers using gene therapy.

    Oh, I’m too tired. That was not what you are talking about.

    Yes, the best approach is to go with the cheap 23andme and then upload the DNA to Promethease
    You get a lot for $12. If you are not using this link, take care with the spelling. There are scammers with nearly the same spelling.
    It is bet that you know something about statistics first as the results you get are massive and overwhelming. If, for example, you have a gene that gives you a x5 risk for a disease that hits 1 in 500,000, that is no big deal. You still only have a 1 in 100,000 chance. If, on the other hand you have a gene that gives you 2x the risk of heart disease…that is a big deal because a lot of people get heart disease.
    It can be useful armed with a list of your particular vulnerabilities to head to iHerb and search for supplements for those conditions…look at a few hundred reviews. Then check out all the science and what the medical sites say. When you have that whittled down talk to your doc…maybe present him with some of the data you found.
    But supplements don’t replace eating well, exercise, sleep, and avoiding alcohol, tobacco and toxins like heavy metals.

  3. I dunno, it’s pretty simple to just eat fruit, which is why epigenetic drift broke the genes responsible for vitamin C production back when we were still monkeys.

    If you are going to undergo the time and cost of gene therapy, it may as well be for an enzyme that removes oxidised low densitiy lippoprotein such as 7 keto cholesterol, or perhaps a transient FOXN1 expression in your thymus to regenerate it.

  4. For normal people the 3 best things they can do is stop drinking soda, stop eating at fast food restaurants and cooking your own food (NOT STORE BOUGHT FROZEN FOOD!).

  5. Holy shit this is an extremely elaborate respons. Thanks, I’ll look into it all.
    What about DNA sequencing? Might that help focus on specific things?

  6. It is not impossible that you could die of aging, though this would be a new thing. I have heard that there are few key neurons that if they died, so do you. The one usually sighted is one that regulates the heart (vagus nerve). Yes, cells actually stretch this far. I am sure there is some redundancy…but there is a limit. Though conceivably you could already be fitted with a heart/diaphragm simulator of some kind. So if it died you would not. But this could just be urban myth stuff.
    Any cell can die because it is old. You could argue that the cell was unhealthy when it died…I suppose. But any reasonable anti-aging/rejuvenation scheme factors in the death of cells, or encourages it. I have heard flies have no way to replace cells, but it is a normal function of human cells…except some nervous system cells. Nervous system cells are generally cared for very well. Lots of supporting glial cells to make neurons happy and healthy. But there may be limits.

  7. I agree on those premises, but I expect those premises will be outdated by the time these things happen.
    I do agree though – my actual opinion is that it could go either way.

  8. > Akin to diminishing returns of armor vs RPGs

    On the other hand, there’s also diminishing returns on the weapons side when the lethality threshold crosses a certain point and keeps going up.

    The object of war is usually not to kill all the enemies, but to stop them from fighting. Currently, killing them just happens to be the easiest way to do that. But in a world where:

    A) You can blow someone’s arms off without killing them, and reasonably expect them to regrow given enough time; and
    B) Killing someone takes very extraordinary measures;

    in that kind of world, killing just isn’t worth the investment. You’d tend to look for easier methods.

    (If your enemy can regrow their arms a little too quickly, or has BCIs and doesn’t need their arms, you may try to disrupt the BCI connection or knock them unconscious or something. That may still be much easier than killing them. And if they use a bunch of military AI, killing isn’t even relevant.)

  9. <<Most people really act as though they were immortal, and don’t seriously take into account that they’re inevitably going to die>>

    No and it’s a subtle but critical difference – most people are deep in death trance. The idea is repressed but definitely there and definitely the root of choices like “not taking seriously” the inevitability of dying; of dying too soon for most people to cope with.

    A very grim state of mind, on the whole. It’s why most people are neglectful and/or complacent of e.g. political corruption, environmental decay, etc.

  10. Akin to diminishing returns of armor vs RPGs. So maybe the real way out of that dead-end is distributed brains. Which seems trivial in principle if we’re on the order of 200+ years hence.

    You could be especially irreverent and have vocalizer organs in a dozen spots around your “body” so that even if all that’s left is a smoking foot and ankle, you could still call it a flesh wound.

  11. > I imagine that shots to the head will remain lethal as any head protection technology will be matched by improved weapons tech

    With a big enough gun, sure. But I have to question the motivation for developing it.

    Military is heading towards automation and cyber-warfare. “Remotely disable the other guy’s infrastructure and weapons” kind of thing. Human soldiers may not be a thing in the future, so not much room for headshots there. Meanwhile, in the civilian sphere, the trend is towards non-lethal methods.

    Even in military, if human soldiers stay, the rules of war might evolve towards non-lethal. An extension of the Geneva Conventions.

    And one has to seriously question the relevance of terrorism and asymmetric warfare when the strong side has no human soldiers on the ground, and their civilians are this difficult to kill or even permanently injure.

    Then there’s the mind backups I’ve mentioned, at least if you consider a backup close enough to still being “you”. A headshot would have to destroy all your backups too. But if you don’t like the backup idea, worst case you can stick your brain in a hidden bunker somewhere, and explore the world through robotic proxies (which, btw, are also useful for occupying enemy territory).

  12. I agree that tech will be developed to guard against more and more risks.
    Especially as those risks are the only ones that remain. They’ll become “our planet’s biggest killers!!!” and so get more resources put towards them.
    On the other hand, I imagine that shots to the head will remain lethal as any head protection technology will be matched by improved weapons tech.

  13. With nanomedicine, we could be carrying the hospital inside our bodies. That would bring the lethality threshold quite a bit up.

    Also, some of those fast killers can be guarded against (prioritized by statistics):
    – Asteroids: better asteroid detection + tracking + deflection (a function of space tech);
    – Lightning: better weather forecasts and monitoring, layered high-k / high conductance (maybe room-temp superconductor?) skin or clothing; (Besides, lightning strikes are already survivable. Death rate is 10%. The kill mechanisms are cardiac arrest and respiratory failure, which are a non-issue with respirocytes and can be fairly easily reversed.)
    – Headshots: high impact-resistance armored skull (I’m thinking something like the graphene/CNT analogue of nacre), stay out of war zones.

    (I’ve also proposed mind backups before, but that one’s more philosophical.)

    edit: Or as Dan Lantz would suggest, move to an O’Neill colony. That pretty much eliminates lightning strikes, and minimizes the chances of an asteroid impact or headshot.

  14. And what if it is not people wiping your a**, but a robot or robo toilet? Advanced powered wheelchair getting you where you want to go? Robots making your food…?
    And what if you can mentally step into an avatar that can brake dance with the best of them?

  15. There are things which are a bit of a gamble. There are telomere extenders. You can pay through the nose for TA-65. Or you can buy what people seem to think is in TA-65: Cycloastragenol and/or Astragaloside IV…which are expensive as well, but much cheaper. Or you can go with concentrations of Astragalus…the herb that contains these compounds, however there are several varieties of Astragalus, and most don’t have any Cycloastragenol…concentrated or not. And then there are all the other things in the herb which may or may not be good.

    There are a variety of supplements that claim to help your mitochondria renew. Most of that is probably rubbish, but HIIT exercise will help with that.

    Then there are NAD+ boosters. In theory this can boost the cell’s ability to use energy and get all its housecleaning and such done. Many people see a lot of difference. I didn’t notice much…but I invested in them. I am probably just not old enough.

    The senescent call clearance stuff does produce noticeable changes for me. I used fisetin and quercetin with a near fast. I used a very low protein fast (no more than 9% of the calories) with 1/4 normal calories. Each time I had to go longer to get the same effects. I hope that means there are less and less senescent cells to remove.

    We are more limited about what we can do about crosslinks. I limit AGEs.

  16. See also where there are more companies with ph.3 trials than mentioned here (and a few more with ph.2 as well).

  17. If Doctor approves these can be tried:
    Take Lutein, Zeaxanthin, Meso-zeaxanthin, and Carnosine for eyes
    Take Magnesium, selenium, zinc and calcium (calcium carbonate…other forms often have lead) before sleep.
    Metforin if you can get it prescribed
    Lycopene or lots of tomatoes and policosanol for heart.
    Salmon/ Salmon oil
    Alpha Lipoic Acid
    Use avocado, rice bran, flax seed and pistachio oil for most cooking (but don’t fry).
    HIIT exercise
    Weight training
    Get enough good quality regular sleep
    Fasting or near fasting regularly (at least 4 days once a season)
    I take fisetin and other senolytics during my near-fast to enhance the removal of senescent cells.
    Lion’s Mane, L-Carnitine, Lecithin, B-2, and Ginkgo for brain
    eat un-toasted seeds and nuts: sesame sunflower almonds walnuts…
    Lots of leafy greens.
    Boiled foods.
    filtered water for drinking and cooking

    Do I do all this all the time? No. Not 100%. Pretty tough. Mostly, I flunk the exercise. HIIT exercise is brutal. And cheddar I find difficult to live without. I also don’t live in a newer house or in a city with clean air 🙁 Though I do filter my indoor air.

  18. Avoid toxic personalities
    Avoid the news if it upsets you
    Avoid air ionizers (the ozone it makes damages the lungs)
    Avoid living were the air is not clean.
    Drive a vehicle that is a very low polluter: no diesel, and should have a good catalytic converter or be natural gas/electric
    Don’t live near a shooting range or a busy small airport (lead)
    Don’t live near a coal power plant (bad air/mercury)
    Avoid taking colloidal minerals (heavy metals)
    Don’t buy or live in a house that ever had lead paint. And test water for lead.
    Don’t buy or live in a house with radon gas.
    Don’t live in a downtown area of an old city that had a population over 300,000 from 1950 to 1980 (in the US). Most of the lead is still there. Florida could still be ok. The way it drains helps remove lead. Preferable to live in a new area of town. Though there are lead maps that can give you better information for a particular area.
    If you fish or hunt use non-lead bullets, shot, and sinkers.
    Avoid dangerous sports obviously.
    Avoid gum disease.
    Avoid getting sunburned
    Avoid fumes from cleaners adhesives etc.
    No toasted/singed foods (very lightly toasted bread is probably ok)
    No cookies, crackers
    Only diet mayo (regular mayo has high AGEs)
    No cream cheese.
    No cheddar, American, or Parmesan cheese. Stick to white cheeses: cottage cheese, ricotta, mozzarella, string cheese.
    No doughnuts churros or other fried breads.
    No toasted oils (many gourmet nut or seed oils are toasted. this makes them profoundly unhealthy).

  19. There are specific tissues you want to keep healthy. Your brain, your eyes, your ears, your heart, your liver, lungs and kidneys.

    There are things you need to avoid: alcohol (the studies were flawed that said one glass of wine a day was better than not drinking. they counted people who were not permitted to drink by their doctors as non-drinkers).
    Avoid tobacco (it is possible nicotine is ok…so perhaps the gum/patches)
    Avoid recreational drugs (though there might be a case for hallucinogens during psychologist treatment. promising for PTSD and depression)
    No fried foods.
    No grilled foods.
    No meat baked at high temperatures.
    No butter.
    And for emphases: Absolutely no bacon, french fries, potato chips, tatter tots, hash browns, or fried chicken!
    Avoid tubers that tend to have lead…yams 🙁 (turns out even very low lead intake is enough to raise your blood pressure and do other damage.
    Avoid pine nuts (yes, out of the blue, but had high levels of AGEs)
    Avoid black licorice (this may be bad for your brain)
    Avoid contagious diseases (many of these linger in the body until your immune system gets weak…then they kill you. if you had chicken pox, take the shingles vaccine when old enough. take any dead vaccine).
    Avoid chocolate with lead in it…some does not have lead.
    Avoid balsamic vinegar from Italy (lead).
    Avoid grape juice/grape jelly etc. (fluoride).
    Avoid anger
    Avoid grudges
    Minimize saturated fat
    Avoid fatty liver disease by keeping weight reasonable

  20. Yes and no. Imagine if you lived 800 years. And then half of your friends have died in freak accidents. You will become more careful because you have the survivor bias of witnessing so many deaths. IT is the same with the society as a whole. While accidents were feared even thousands of years ago, they were part of violent deaths, infections, predators, famine, .etc. So more dangerous behavior might not significantly change the life expectancy but probably can lead to more rewards like better hunt, foraging or status.

    As we get older we realize that we are fragile and not immortal. we become wiser and a bit more careful. Will a 800 years old be as wise as 80 years of today ? That person would for sure know more. But will that be enough ? It is hard to say. Anyway, ask me in 800 years….

  21. I imagine that a combination of aging being cured and improved medical tech means you would end up only being killed by something that was lethal fast enough to destroy you before you could get to a hospital.

    Asteroid impact, lightning strike, 0.50 caliber headshot, would kill you; ebola, heart disease, cancer, bullet through the intestines… all of these should affect you in 2220 about as badly as a broken arm does today: hurts and needs treatment but a year later it’s just a cool story to tell.

  22. The lion thing resonates with me, because I knew a guy who was both heavily into… let’s say “less conventional” health practices, and who had a lion. Which would wander around the office that he was running a startup from. Various friends of mine would work in this office and find a lion in the kitchen eating from the floor or something.

  23. I don’t think that’s a problem, because in order to internalize the idea that you’re going to live 10 times longer than you expected, you’ve got to first have internalized the idea that you’re going to die. Most people really act as though they were immortal, and don’t seriously take into account that they’re inevitably going to die, until something like aging or a really serious illness or injury forces them to do so. (For me it was a lymphoma that I really could have died of in a matter of months from the diagnosis.)

    The rest of us just go along from day to day as though we’ve got forever, until the day comes when facing their mortality becomes unavoidable due to declining health.

    Take away aging, and you’d just stay in that default “I’ve got forever” mindset.

  24. Yeah, my point is that, barring accidents taking you out, aging pretty much guarantees a nasty drawn out end. Getting rid of aging would shift the odds strongly in favor of causes that take you out quickly.

  25. Accidents are scary, but are one-off. If we don’t age but say don’t regenerate well, we could end up accumulating tons of small scars over the years. That would be another for of “aging” , where your body as a whole works OK but you have too many scars , lost limbs , organs that you are one acute infection away from dying. Of course, eventually organ printing will be able to fix all this…. As long as you don’t age you can live long enough…

  26. Depending on the risk factors it is estimated between 800 to 2000 years (from top of my head). You are right that we (i do hope i make it ) will be dying from freak accidents. And they by definition are scary. Today the number 1 killer are cardiovascular diseases followed by cancer , and then dementia , chronic infections and friends. The chance of dying in a terrorist attack , even if you are in a high-risk areas or professions are orders of magnitute lower of dying form diseases from old age. Heck, annual flew deaths in US alone are probably much higher than all the terrosti attacks combined. Yet we don’t have a flu safety administration that makes us sanitize our hands at checkpoints and show a proof of recent vaccination. And yet we are complacently accept the TSA checks at the airports, while chances of dying there are higher from an exotic infection…

    My point is that with a different life expectancy comes a completely different risk tolerance and societal mindset. Up to 19th centuries non-combat deaths could be as high as 50% when army was on move.

    If your life expectancy is 20 something you can engage in all kinds of risky and reckless behavior and don’t change it much. We have to be conscious about radiation exposure not to get cancer 30 years down the road. We have seat-belts, airbags, strict traffic rules (and in some places enforcement). Probably, the self-driving cars now are safer then the cars from 1920s but we have higher safety standards.

  27. Gradually becoming more decrepit as your IQ drops and you become more and more prone to infection and injury, until you’re incapable of surviving the rigors of life even with great care, is pretty scary and painful, too. Towards the end there my mom couldn’t use band-aids because her skin would tear when they were removed.

  28. As time goes by, we’ll also get better at treating increasingly critical wounds. Eventually, we’d be able to survive anything that doesn’t destroy our brains. One plausible mechanism is having nano-medical devices in our heads to keep our brains alive until our bodies are regrown.

    At some point, maybe we could even survive major brain trauma. There are some medical examples of that already, and we can get better at that. We’ll also get better at protecting our brains, so eventually only a cosmic event may be able to kill us.

    The time to develop that could be far less than 1000 years, so a half-life of 1000 years may be practically indistinguishable from an indefinite half life.

  29. The half-life of a large group of humans with indefinite lifespans (i.e. not prone to death by diseases associated with the aging process, to include cancer) would probably be somewhere right around 1,000 years, assuming lethal levels of ennui don’t occur first.

    The downside then being, unless you are hit by an asteroid (or a nuke), or murdered in your sleep, you are probably eventually looking at a really scary and painful end.

    Kinda reminds me of the old saw about how half of all marriages end in divorce . . . but the other half all end in death.

  30. there is also this psychological limit of not being able to easily internalize the idea of having more than double of what you have now. For example, you can easily imagine 10-50 % more income. But 10 times more and it becomes a mental exercise. For the remaining lifespan. You can plan a few years ahead, but the further you go the blurrier it becomes. If you are 15, the 45-yolds look like fossils to you. It is a matter of perspective.

  31. The most effective measure at this point is to pick the right parents, unfortunately. There may be other measures that work, but we won’t know that they work for quite some time.

    I do see indications of interventions that will probably work being available in the near term, though. Fahy’s thymus rejuvenation protocol has had some promising early results, and *ought* to be possible to privately replicate if your doctor is at all cooperative.

    I’ve done some personal experiments with high dose periodic quercetin, (A single dose of several grams, once a month.) that looked promising: Some troubling sun damaged spots on the back of my hands became inflamed each time I took it, and then healed to a better state than before. So, whether there were actual anti-aging effects, it does SEEM to have had a useful anti-senolytic effect. And given the research I’ve seen, I make a point of getting an occasional dose of Azithromycin.

  32. Trust me, when you’re 70 you’ll find you care. And you’ll be rather mad at yourself for not caring earlier, when it might have mattered.

  33. Mild case of the Tithonus error here. What you are asking for is actually practically impossible. You don’t die from “aging” you die from poor health. Either scientists will manage to slow down the rate of aging, in which case you will be healthier or “young” longer, but will still eventually get sick and ill and then die with an imfirm period at the end of your life. Or they will manage to periodically comprehensively repair all seven classes of SENS damage and make you “young” and healthy again and again, and you will die one day by being hit by a bus or asteroid in the distant future.

    Your logic does seem to be that you don’t want to live longer than 70-90 years because by then you would be old and infirm. But if rejuvenation technologies work however you will only live past the 70-90 lifespan of today by being healthy and biologically young at those ages. Extending the sick period at the end of life is actually very difficult compared to extending the healthy period of life beyond today’s lifespans.

  34. I don’t care that much about living longer than 70-90 years. I do care about eliminating the debilitating effects of old age so I am not an invalid depending on others to help me do simple things like cook, eat and use the bathroom. My grandmother is 98 years old, and visiting her in the nursing home is heart breaking seeing what age has done to the people there. Give me a relatively quick death by lion any day.
    I spent the first few years of my life in diapers and that was enough, I prefer not to have to spend the last few years of my life in them too.

  35. What could one personally so to increase lifespan?
    Of course there is fasting, eating healthy, sports, etc.
    But are there drugs / supplements that might be effective to take?

Comments are closed.