Starlink Phases and Increasing Download Speeds

Starlink will change the angle to cover 500-kilometer diameter spots from 1000 kilometer diameter spots. This will increase the download bandwidth from 100 mbps to 300 mbps. The second-generation Starlink will use a tighter beam and the ka band. It will be several years for the second generation Starlink to be deployed. The first 12000 Starlink’s will be first-generation satellites.

SpaceX will build its 4400 satellite Ku-/Ka-band constellation. SpaceX Starlink will then deploy 7000 satellites in lower orbits that would communicate in V-band frequencies.

May 2020, SpaceX applied for permission to launch 30,000 “second-generation” Starlink broadband Internet satellites. The software on Starlink satellites is updated about once a week.

The second-generation satellites will have three times the data capacity of SpaceX’s current satellites.
Polar regions are covered.
The second-generation satellites will have optical inter-satellite links.
Low altitudes “will enable smaller spot beams and greater satellite diversity, achieving the intensive frequency reuse needed to heighten capacity available anywhere in the world.”
Low altitudes will allow SpaceX to use high E-band frequencies for communication with ground stations.
Low altitudes will reduce latency.

The first 12000 satellites should be able to provide high-speed internet to 25 million customers and this would be roughly $25 billion per year in revenue.
The first 44000 satellite network should be able to provide high-speed internet to well over 100 million customers and possibly 300 million customers. This would be $100 to 300 billion per year in revenue. SpaceX will continue to upgrade its satellites and add more of them to increase bandwidth. All of the satellites will have to be replaced every 5 years as they run out of fuel and get de-orbited.

L-band uses 1 to 2GHz frequency range
Ku-band uses 12-18GHz, and
Ka-band uses 26.5-40GHz electromagnetic spectrum.

The bandwidth is about 14 – 120 kbps per square kilometer in the Ka band downlink depending on latitude.

SOURCES- Starlink, FCC
Written By Brian Wang,