Many in the space community are very concerned about low-gravity, no-gravity and radiation for people living for long durations in space colonies on planets, moons, asteroids or orbital bases. These are major problems when there is small spacecraft or space station like what has been used for the last 60 years.
Space station designs since the 1960s have known that building large spinning structures can simulate gravity.
The Kalpana One structure is a spinning cylinder with a radius of 250meters and a length of 325m. The population target is 3,000 residents. Kalpana One has been designed in detail by Al Globus et al at the National Space Society.
The London Eye is a Ferris wheel with a diameter of 120 meters. The London Eye weighs 2100 tons.
Gravitrons are cheap and common amusement park rides that spin people. However, the Gravitron is just proof that one-gee is easily simulated. The actual gravity loops would be made big and comfortable like overnight sleeping cars on trains. Also, Boring Company electric tunneling machines will make digging tunnels insanely cheap. It is almost as if Elon Musk has thought about the need for cheap tunnels for space colonies on Mars, the moon and elsewhere.
We can make 1000-meter diameter subway loops on the moon, Mars or Asteroids. Larger structures can have reduced rotation speeds and enable long-term living. Those living in space (Martians, Loonies, Orbiters etc..) can sleep overnight on the 1-G gravity loop pods.
Burying the living quarters can prevent any excess radiation exposure. Large structures have the mass to shield against radiation.
Placing the first space stations in equatorial orbits can make them safe from radiation for the inhabitants.
In general, building big solves all of the problems. Surviving on a raft is hard as shown in the Tom Hanks movie Castaway. If you build big then you can live with unending Buffets like on Cruise ships. Building even bigger and we can enable social distancing on cruise ships.
SpaceX will create the fully reusable Super Heavy Starships. Two hundred Super Heavy Starships flying 5 times per day can move 100,000 tons into orbit every day. This would be a large cruise ship every day.
SOURCES= NSS, wikipedia
Written by Brian Wang, Nextbigfuture.com