Breakthrough in Understanding How Effective Tissue Regeneration Works

A researcher has discovered an alternative signaling pathway that is compatible with regeneration of tissues. This could ultimately lead to regenerative medicine therapies for humans. This could help us to create therapies that improve clinical outcomes in diseases in which scarring plays a major role in the pathology, including heart, kidney, liver, and lung disease.

The signaling response of a class of proteins called toll-like receptors (TLRs), which allow macrophages to recognize a threat such an infection or a tissue injury and induce a pro-inflammatory response, were “unexpectedly divergent” in response to injury in the axolotl and the mouse. The finding offers an intriguing window into the mechanisms governing regeneration in the axolotl.

Development Dynamics – Distinct toll-like receptor signaling in the salamander response to tissue damage


Efficient wound healing or pathogen clearance both rely on balanced inflammatory responses. Inflammation is essential for effective innate immune-cell recruitment; however, excessive inflammation will result in local tissue destruction, pathogen egress, and ineffective pathogen clearance. Sterile and nonsterile inflammation operate with competing functional priorities but share common receptors and overlapping signal transduction pathways. In regenerative organisms such as the salamander, whole limbs can be replaced after amputation while exposed to a nonsterile environment. In mammals, exposure to sterile-injury Damage Associated Molecular Patterns (DAMPS) alters innate immune-cell responsiveness to secondary Pathogen Associated Molecular Pattern (PAMP) exposure.

Using new phospho-flow cytometry techniques to measure signaling in individual cell subsets we compared mouse to salamander inflammation. These studies demonstrated evolutionarily conserved responses to PAMP ligands through toll-like receptors (TLRs) but identified key differences in response to DAMP ligands. Co-exposure of macrophages to DAMPs/PAMPs suppressed MAPK signaling in mammals, but not salamanders, which activate sustained MAPK stimulation in the presence of endogenous DAMPS.

These results reveal an alternative signal transduction network compatible with regeneration that may ultimately lead to the promotion of enhanced tissue repair in mammals.

SOURCES – Development Dynamics
Written by Brian Wang,

17 thoughts on “Breakthrough in Understanding How Effective Tissue Regeneration Works”

  1. MB_________________________!!!!!!!!!!!!
    Your two responses in "US Passes Billion" are not seeing the big picture. Please read carefully the above comments, most of what you mention is cleard up. You are clearly by your own words a power addict. Thus, you are an addict. Thus, you are repressing pain, and are addicted to the whatever it is. Power? does not really matter, the therapy is the same. Power addiction is the most dangerous addiction of all, far and away. I'm afraid you have gone mystic, now more of a theocrat. You write like an evangelical. theocrat is worst form of power addict. edit: note that you seem to agree with me that the current half vast war on drugs is a failure, and I further state that it is counter productive, thus does GREAT HARM to children, the very ones you claim legitimize your power. So, stop it! Years ago, a libertarian used the absolute prohibition solution you propose to make clear the costs and impossibility of the drug war succeeding in practice. A strawman almost. A utopian dream idea that can be addictive. Did you know Janov describes such addiction too?

  2. "governmental ownership and administration of the means of production and distribution of goods" Such as the War on Drugs!!!!!!

    "privately owned or owned by corporations" as in National Socialism. It is the initiation of force that matters, not the slippery labels of the power addict. Socialist and authoritarians all look the same when in total power. A non-aggressive anything is a libertarian. Capitalism is formally defined to be libertarian, btw, in careful libertarian thought. See Rand for the importance of definitions. The unexamined life . . .

  3. How about the definition in a standard dictionary, the one that's been around longer than I've been alive: "various economic and political theories advocating collective or governmental ownership and administration of the means of production and distribution of goods". This is in contrast to capitalism where production and distribution is privately owned or owned by corporations. It's a useful distinction, one that your group (all libertarians?) seem to have lost.

    This is not sloppy thinking. Using standard definitions allows you to hold meaningful conversations with other people. You need to come out of your little corner of the internet more often to learn how to interact with others. I can see that Primal Therapy has done nothing to make you more tolerant of others.

  4. Again, what meaningful definition do you propose? Mine is ancient and meaningful. The fact that right wing socialists don't want to be known as socialists is certainly understandable. Who would? Abe would ask, "If you call a tail a leg, how many legs does a dog have?" The answer, "4, calling a tail a leg does not make it one." Socialism as practiced by right wingers is just as neurotic as left wing stuff. Does clear thinking interfere with your message? Were the naught sees socialist? Will you answer? edit: to be clear, your definition of "socialist" must separate left wingers as "socialist" while excluding right wingers. Without simply repeating the words right and left, as they are not defined! The words in the libertarian def are clear and explicit, btw. As you see, "everybody else" is wrong, sloppy thinking, no clear definition of key word they use.

  5. In normal conversations/dialogue/arguments on politics in America, Republicans accuse Democrats of pushing a socialist agenda. If you have a different definition than what everybody else uses, you should state it up front.

  6. Fifty years ago on Thursday, President Nixon declared a “War on Drugs.”
    In a special address to Congress, he promised a coordinated federal
    response to drug addiction, which he described as a “national emergency”
    that “destroys lives, destroys families, and destroys communities.”
    Five decades and hundreds of billions of dollars later, the War on Drugs
    has done nothing to curb addiction. Instead, it has destroyed the
    lives, families, and communities of millions of Americans,
    disproportionately people of color, who have been incarcerated for drug

  7. Were the National Socialists socialist?
    I use the age old libertarian definition of socialism, which happens to also fit as opposite of the healthy normal person description of Janov. socialist is the opposite of libertarian, which is: "Does not believe in or advocate the initiation of force or fraud to achieve political or social ends." When you break down a door to get weed smoker, are you initiating force? Short version of libertarian is "live and let live", Janov's exact words. Do you have a coherent definition of socialism we can use? Left wing socialist? Right wing socialist? Can you tell me rationale for left and right differences, or is it just a hodge-podge of political stuff? Socialism is of course always power addiction, but not all power addiction is socialism. Private family stuff mostly. And do socialists ever object to being outed as such!

  8. This is an understanding the theory breakthrough, not a practical application breakthrough. We need both to really move forward.

  9. The discovery of the separate epigenetic or similar control system will be seen as the breakthru for all subsequent *actual* experimental results. Much as the first *caused* Primal led to understanding humans.

  10. Give me an ETA until the rejuvenation clinics open, and where and when I should buy stock beforehand please.

  11. While interesting, this research is not bringing a real breakthrough. There were no actual experiments in-vivo to show reduced scarring or enhanced regeneration. Even a tiny reduction in scar vs normal tissue can lead to significant clinical improvements.

    So don't hold your breath.

  12. Of course, developmental growth in adults is not the only thing that happens in PT. Addictions are cured, in particularly power addiction, the most dangerous addiction of all. Examples are rampant of socialism, a form of public power addiction, making everyone perfect by the neurotic power addicts' plans. Such power addiction leads to extreme harm, such as the War on Drugs, financing children's drug hustle businesses.

  13. Indeed. "Cancer and heart disease are not the major killers they are thought to be. Repression is." -Janov

  14. I was present when another patient reported the new toenail she had grown, after missing it all her life. Late developmental completion rather than regeneration, as it had not actually been lost, but not all that common outside of actual Primal Therapy, I'll bet. primaltherapy dot com Interesting stuff!

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