Having the global poor switch to soot free cooking would save millions of lives per year and reduce global warming. Soot causes 30% of warming. 2 billion people cook with open fires or polluting cookers. About 4.3 million people die each year from indoor air pollution. The burning of materials indoor is for cooking, heating and lighting.
It has been difficult to get clean cooking machines to be adopted. The soot-free cookers did not perform as well regular cookers.
They used carbonized solid fuels in residential cooking practice.
Four biochar samples, three semi-coke briquette samples and their raw materials were tested in a typical cooking stove. These carbonized samples showed higher thermal efficiencies and lower particulate matter (PM) emission factors (EFs) than their raw material samples. Owing to distilled volatile matter during carbonization treatment, average energy delivered-based PM2.5 EFs were 10 ± 5 mg/kJ (carbonized) and 50 ± 28 mg/kJ (raw) for the biomass and 0.33 ± 0.04 mg/kJ (carbonized) and 3.0 ± 1.3 mg/kJ (raw) for the coal samples. The energy delivered-based EFs of organic carbon, elemental carbon, and 16 priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons extracted from PM2.5 samples from carbonized fuels were reduced by 97 ± 1%, 93 ± 3%, and 97 ± 2%, respectively, for the tested biomass samples, and those for the tested coal samples were 96 ± 1%, 90 ± 6%, and 98 ± 2%, respectively. Significant reduction in air pollutant emissions from household cooking stoves by replacing raw solid fuels with their carbonized products.
Deaths related to cooking related indoor air pollution fell by 29% between 2005 and 2015 in China. Surprisingly, government restrictions accounted for only a fraction of this decrease. Eighty percent of the drop was spurred by a reduction in people’s use of wood and other dirty fuels for cooking and heating. Rural people either migrated to cities or gained enough income to buy cleaner fuels (carbonized briquettes).
Carbonized solid fuels reducing carcinogenic potency and pollutants, most of which are highly correlated with the volatile matter content of the fuel. Switching from raw solid fuel to carbonized solid fuel will help to reduce pollutant emissions from household combustion and achieve both environmental benefits and health benefits for household residents.
(PDF) Significant reduction in air pollutant emissions from household cooking stoves by replacing raw solid fuels with their carbonized products. Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/327428794_Significant_reduction_in_air_pollutant_emissions_from_household_cooking_stoves_by_replacing_raw_solid_fuels_with_their_carbonized_products [accessed Nov 20 2018].
* carbonized briquettes became hotter than charcoal allowing for faster cooking, meaning that the same amount of food could be cooked with relatively less fuel than if they had used charcoal.
* Multiple participants also cited liked the ease and speed of lighting the briquettes, as well as the cleanliness of handling them. In comparison to charcoal, the majority of participants rated the briquettes the same or better than charcoal across multiple usability parameters: lighting, initial fuel loading,
topping up fuel during cooking, simmering, frying, and boiling.
* The most commonly cited frustration with the briquettes was the amount of ash produced during the cooking