The von Neumann architecture for a classical computer comprises a central processing unit and a memory holding instructions and data. We demonstrate a quantum central processing unit that exchanges data with a quantum random-access memory integrated on a chip, with instructions stored on a classical computer. We test our quantum machine by executing codes that involve seven quantum elements: Two superconducting qubits coupled through a quantum bus, two quantum memories, and two zeroing registers. Two vital algorithms for quantum computing are demonstrated, the quantum Fourier transform, with 66% process fidelity, and the three-qubit Toffoli OR phase gate, with 98% phase fidelity. Our results, in combination especially with longer qubit coherence, illustrate a potentially viable approach to factoring numbers and implementing simple quantum error correction codes.
Our results provide optimism for the near-term implementation of a larger-scale quantum processor based on superconducing circuits. Our architecture shows that proof-of-concept factorization algorithms and simple quantum error correction codes might be achievable using this approach.