A method and apparatus for carrying out highly efficient exothermal reaction between nickel and hydrogen atoms in a tube, preferably, though not necessary, a metal tube filled by a nickel powder and heated to a high temperature, preferably, though not necessary, from 150 to 5000C are herein disclosed. In the inventive apparatus, hydrogen is injected into the metal tube containing a highly pressurized nickel powder having a pressure, preferably though not necessarily, from 2 to 20 bars.
Some other technical attributes of the process include:
* Regular Ni is used even though other isotopes may provide better efficiency. They think all the isotopes work to produce the effect.
* For some unknown reason, not all of the Ni in the cell reacts with the hydrogen to produce energy. The percentage of the Ni that reacts is very low.
* Even though the percentage of the Ni that reacts with hydrogen is very low one kilogram of nickel powder should deliver 10 kW of energy for 10,000 hours. The consumption rate of hydrogen and nickel are 0.1 g of Ni and 0.01 g of H to produce 10 kWh/h. Note that for every picogram of nickel that is actually fused or reacts to the hydrogen, much more must be added. Not all the nickel added will react. So if you add 0.1g of Ni to produce 10kWh/h only a small fraction of that Ni will actually be utilized. When the device shuts off due to running out of fuel most of the .1g could be remaining.
* Tungsten is in no way used. However, “other elements” are used.
* Radiation is produced. However in the device demonstrated which is made for commercial use no radiation escapes due to lead shielding. The fact that radiation is produced is proof of a nuclear reaction.
* In the demonstration device for every unit of input there was approximately 37 units of output.
* A small percentage of the nickel is transmuted into copper. The amount of copper found in the cell is far greater than the impurities in the nickel powder. None of this copper is “unstable.”
* There is no radioactivity in the cell after it is turned off. No nuclear “waste.”
* All of the information needed to successfully replicate a self sustaining system is in the patent application (which is being held proprietary presently).
* The power density for thermal energy only is 5 liters per kilowatt.
* The hydrogen has to be all hydrogen with no deuterium or heavy hydrogen. Apparently, any heavy hydrogen stops the reaction.
* This current system never goes below 6 times more energy out than in. During the test it produced 20 times more energy out than in. In the lab they have done similar tests and obtained 400 times more out than in, but it produced explosions.
* (speculation, pending clarification) The fueling of the system could probably be done via a relatively inexpensive fuel rod that would need to be replaced every few months
Focardi and Rossi recently had a public demonstration of a desktop-sized reactor that produces 11 kW of net power for extended periods of time. Both the fuel and residues are clean and free of radioactivity. The fuel is nickel powder and a tiny amount of hydrogen. A gram of nickel generates 2000 kilowatt-hours in this prototype.
Rossi’s design uses a nickel powder with catalysts instead of nickel sheets. It is therefore capable of producing much more power. In 2010 they jointly published a paper that reported six different experiments with durations of up to 52 days. The longest experiment used 19 kWh of energy input to produce 3768 kWh of output energy. Output/input power ratios as high as 415 were obtained but, in the interest of safety and stability, the device demonstrated on January 14th runs at a power gain ratio of only 15.
6. Rossi has invested 500,000 Euros in developing and building 100 reactors, of ten kilowatts each, that comprise the Athens plant. He also claims that more than a thousand reactors have been built and destroyed during the development.
So each unit costs about 500 to 1000 Euros.
Leonardo Technologies Inc. (LTI) has demonstrated their thermoelectric innovation as a cost-effective energy-producing alternative that is efficient and environmentally benign. Initial testing of LTI’s innovations demonstrate an approximate three-fold in-crease in energy conversion and potentially a ten-fold decrease in fabrication cost per kW of electrical generation capacity.