The study concluded that ostarine increased lean mass and strength without evidencing any androgenic side effects. Further ostarine research into its use in treating the wasting related to cancer is scheduled. The subjects in this study were all elderly, meaning they likely all were experiencing the age related decline in anabolic hormones (testosterone, DHEA, growth hormone, etc). Also, the degree of gain in lean muscle mass was only 1.4kg after three months of therapy for the highest dose group. The increase in speed (+15 percent) and power (+25 percent) measured during the stair climbing was impressive though, suggesting the gain in lean mass was mostly muscle. Effects were dose-dependent, meaning the higher the dose, the greater the effects (within the range studied). If natural testosterone concentrations are unaffected (this was not reported, so that would be an assumption), then the ostarine would be supplementing the anabolic effect of a person’s natural testosterone levels, in essence giving them the equivalent of a 125 200mg/week testosterone ester head start.
SARMs work similarly to testosterone but in a more targeted way. “They are effective by binding to the steroid receptor in only specific tissue, like muscle,” says Evans, who is also a scientific advisor to GTx, a company developing the drugs. “They are not steroid drugs, but they produce the anabolic effect of the steroids.”
Orally active, nonsteroidal selective androgen receptor modulators may be useful therapeutics for enhancing muscle, bone, and sexual function. Research has been reported on SARM drugs that support bone density, increase/maintain the libido (sex drive) in female rats, inhibit sperm and testosterone production and reduce body fat. Studies conclude that ostarine increased lean mass and strength without evidencing any androgenic side effects.
This was covered on this site initially when they were placed on the anti-doping list
Lan Bo Chen has developed a B-vitamin cocktail (mixed with green tea) that increases mitochondrial output by enabling the mitochondria to feed on fat instead of sugars. Studies on mice and high-performance cyclists have shown this drink to be effective in increasing performance by increasing endurance. [cyclists had a 3% performance enhancement on 30 kilometer rides.] It can help a man in his 40’s have the mitochondrial activity of a twenty-year-old, it will do little for a man in his 20’s because his mitochondria are already working at full capacity.
Darpa has renamed most of its biology programs, to make them sound less like science fiction, and more like military necessities. For example, “Persistence in Combat,” the project to keep injured G.I.s pulling the trigger on the battlefield for days, is now known as “Soldier Self-Care.” “Metabolic Dominance” is slated to become “Peak Soldier Performance.”
Before the race, the dogs’ metabolic makeup is similar to humans. Then suddenly they throw a switch — we don’t know what it is yet — that reverses all of that. In a 24-hour period, they go back to the same type of metabolic baseline you see in resting subjects. But it’s while they are running 100 miles a day.
The world contains approximately 4.2 billion people over the age of twenty. Even a small enhancement of cognitive capacity in these individuals would probably have an impact on the world economy rivaling that of the internet. The commercial market for a compound that could reverse the effects of aging on human energetics would be more than significant. The cost of Social Security in the U.S. is expected to approach 7% of the gross domestic product (GDP); reducing this cost by any significant degree would also have substantial impact on federal obligations and expenditures.
Ronald Evans at the Salk Institute is injecting the PPAR-delta gene to reduce weight gain in mice and double exercise endurance.
Dr. Michael West, Biotime, believes that embryonic stem cells and genetic engineering can safely radically extend human lives, enable regenerative medicine, greatly enhance brain function and cognition and enhance human performance. [Discover magazine “The Body” summer 2008 pg 82-86]
A transcript of a show interviewing Julian Savulescu, ethicist from Oxford University, that discussed genetic enhancement and in particular IQ enhancement and society. Note: The show broadcast Aug 2007 discusses whole genome sequencing costing $50,000 within 5 years. That price has already been reached in 2008.
Based on the lead abatement strategies the predictions are that if you simply increased people’s IQ, everyone’s IQ by 3 points, which is a very small increase, across a whole population, (so remember the mean is 100), if you increased the whole population’s IQ by just 3 points, you would reduce poverty by 25%, you would reduce welfare recipiency by 18%, the number of males in jail by 25%, the number of parentless children by 20%. Now if I said to you, ‘I have a social program of love, care, counselling and social support that would reduce the poverty rate by 25%’, people would be jumping up and down saying ‘Why isn’t this being instituted?’ But here are some data that suggests that increasing people’s IQ by a very small amount, could have those effects. Now as I said, even if that’s out by a factor of 10, the social effects are still significant.
People have estimated that an increase of 1 IQ point leads to a nearly 2% increase in income, and for the US economy, an increase per IQ point across the population, results in a $50-billion to $60-billion increase in GDP, in national earnings. So the figures can be quite striking. People have estimated, I can’t remember the figure exactly, but something like 15% of the US GDP is probably accountable to the computing revolution and the added cognitive power that computers have given human beings.
Review of Darpa enhancement projects
Here is the 15 page study on cyclists (with enhanced speed from a mitochondria boosting drink) which lists the FRS drink.
This project tested the effects of 6 weeks of twice daily FRS (Free Radical Scavenger) dietary supplementation on 30 km cycling time-trial (TT) performance. The FRS formula is a patent-pending combination of flavonoids, vitamins, and other functional ingredients that has energy-producing, performance-enhancing, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-cancer effects. The primary active ingredient in FRS is quercetin, a flavonoid found in onion skins, blueberries, and tea, which, when combined with the other FRS ingredients, has been shown to produce measurable health effects in animal and human studies.
Quercetin belongs to a group of plant pigments called flavonoids that are largely responsible for the colors and protection of many fruits, flowers, and vegetables. Scientists have identified more than 4,000 flavonoids in nature, many of which provide a variety of health benefits in humans, such as protection against cancer and cell damage caused by oxidation. The other ingredients in FRS work in a synergistic way with quercetin. Many of these ingredients, such as caffeine and B-vitamins, help to increase the concentration of quercetin in blood plasma thereby increasing its overall effectiveness and benefits.