Instead of using discrete permanent magnets to form the rotor of a flywheel’s integrated motor/generator, magnetic powder is mixed into the composite matrix. After the flywheel has been manufactured using filament winding, flash magnetisation of the integrated magnetic particles generates the required field configuration forming the rotor. With no large metallic structures in the MLC flywheel rotor, eddy current losses and heating are negligible resulting in very high electrical efficiencies. The lack of rotor heating gives MLC flywheels a unique advantage over other composite flywheel designs: they can be continuously deep-cycled at high power with no detriment to performance or reduction in life. The wholly composite MLC flywheel design also improves system safety: in the event of a failure, there are no metallic fragments requiring containment. In common with other flywheels, they can operate efficiently at extreme ambient temperatures – unlike chemical batteries and capacitors.
Greencarcongress – The 911 GT3 R Hybrid features an electrical front axle drive with two electric motors developing 60 kW each supplementing the 480-bhp (358 kW) four-liter flat-six at the rear of the 911 GT3 R Hybrid.
The flywheel generator itself is an electric motor with its rotor spinning at speeds of up to 40,000 rpm, storing energy mechanically as rotation energy. The flywheel generator is charged whenever the driver applies the brakes, with the two electric motors reversing their function on the front axle and acting themselves as generators. The flywheel is slowed down electromagnetically in the generator mode in order to supply up to 120 kW to the two electric motors at the front from its kinetic energy. This additional power is available to the driver after each charge process for approximately 6 – 8 seconds.
The 911 with its innovative drive concept, was able to gradually extend its lead through the high efficiency of its hybrid technology and its fuel consumption advantage. The hybrid car needed to pit every ten laps to refuel, whereas its rivals were forced to stop approximately every eight laps. “The hybrid system worked like a dream,” commented works driver, Richard Lietz.
The MLC Hybrid led the field of 200 cars (33 were Porsches) for eight hours until engine problems prematurely curtailed their impressive performance – just a tantalising hour and a quarter from the finish line
Flywheel energy storage—An upswing technology for energy sustainability
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