Einstein-Rosen or “ER” bridges, are equivalent to entangled quantum particles, also known as Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen or “EPR” pairs. The quantum connection between wormholes prevents their collapse without involving exotic matter.
The quantum-teleportation format precludes using these traversable wormholes as time machines. Anything that goes through the wormhole has to wait for Alice’s message to travel to Bob in the outside universe before it can exit Bob’s black hole, so the wormhole doesn’t offer any superluminal boost that could be exploited for time travel.
Researchers are working towards lab tests of quantum teleportation to verify their theories.
We study various aspects of wormholes that are made traversable by an interaction between the two asymptotic boundaries. We concentrate on the case of nearlyAdS2 gravity and discuss a very simple mechanical picture for the gravitational dynamics. We derive a formula for the two sided correlators that includes the effect of gravitational backreaction, which limits the amount of information we can send through the wormhole. We emphasize that the process can be viewed as a teleportation protocol where the teleportee feels nothing special as he/she goes through the wormhole. We discuss some applications to the cloning paradox for old black holes. We point out that the same formula we derived for AdS2 gravity is also valid for the simple SYK quantum mechanical theory, around the thermofield double state. We present a heuristic picture for this phenomenon in terms of an operator growth model. Finally, we show that a similar effect is present in a completely classical chaotic system with a large number of degrees of freedom.
ER=EPR allows us to think of quantum teleportation as communication of quantum information through space-time wormholes connecting entangled systems. The conditions for teleportation render the wormhole traversable so that a quantum system entering one end of the ERB will, after a suitable time, appear at the other end. Teleportation requires the transfer of classical information outside the horizon, but the classical bit-string carries no information about the teleported system; the teleported system passes through the ERB leaving no trace outside the horizon. In general the teleported system will retain a memory of what it encountered in the wormhole. This phenomenon could be observable in a laboratory equipped with
After turning on an interaction that couples the two boundaries of an eternal BTZ black hole, we find a quantum matter stress tensor with negative average null energy, whose gravitational backreaction renders the Einstein-Rosen bridge traversable. Such a traversable wormhole has an interesting interpretation in the context of ER=EPR, which we suggest might be related to quantum teleportation. However, it cannot be used to violate causality. We also discuss the implications for the energy and holographic entropy in the dual CFT description.
General relativity contains solutions in which two distant black holes are connected through the interior via a wormhole, or Einstein-Rosen bridge. These solutions can be interpreted as maximally entangled states of two black holes that form a complex EPR pair. We suggest that similar bridges might be present for more general entangled states. In the case of entangled black holes one can formulate versions of the AMPS(S) paradoxes and resolve them. This suggests possible resolutions of the firewall paradoxes for more general situations.