They track 16,704 populations of 4,005 vertebrate species, the LPI finds that global populations of mammals, birds, fish, reptiles, and amphibians have declined, on average, by 60 percent between 1970 and 2014, the most recent year with available data.
Human activity has impacted the habitats and natural resources wildlife and humanity depend on, such as oceans, forests, coral reefs, wetlands and mangroves. The Earth is estimated to have lost about half of its shallow water corals in the past 30 years and 20 percent of the Amazon has disappeared in just 50 years.
The key drivers of biodiversity decline remain overexploitation and agriculture. Indeed, of all the plant, amphibian, reptile, bird and mammal species that have gone extinct since AD 1500, 75% were harmed by overexploitation or agricultural activity or both.
Human population and wealth has increased and will continue to increase
Human population is at 7.6 billion and will increase to 10 billion by 2050 and about 12 billion by 2100. Human wealth and GDP is also increasing.
The realistic scenario is for a shift from fossil fuel energy to occur over about 50+ years and for a shift to ocean farming using about 10 to 20% of the ocean. Shifting to a lot of greenhouses can also reduce land usage and increase water efficiency by 10 to 20 times.