Measuring Quantum Computer Power With IBM Quantum Volume Metric

If you can’t measure it, you can’t improve it. IBM created the Quantum Volume metric to measure the power of quantum computers. Quantum Computers have the potential to be vastly more powerful than regular computers. IBM created a Quantum Volume Metric to integrate all of the factors that effect the processing capability of quantum computers. IBM recently updated its Quantum Volume metric from an earlier definition. The single-number metric, quantum volume, can be measured using a concrete protocol on near-term quantum computers of modest size (less than 50 qubits) and measure it on several state-of-the-art transmon devices, finding values as high as 8. The quantum volume is linked to system error rates, and is empirically reduced by uncontrolled interactions within the system. It quantifies the largest random circuit of equal width and depth that the computer successfully implements. Quantum computing systems with high-fidelity operations, high connectivity, large calibrated gate sets, and circuit rewriting toolchains are expected to have higher quantum volumes. The quantum volume is a pragmatic way to measure and compare progress toward improved system-wide gate error rates for near-term quantum computation and error-correction experiments. Quantum volume is architecture independent, and can be applied to any system that is capable of running quantum circuits. We implement this metric on several IBM Q devices, and find a quantum volume as high as 8. We conjecture that systems with higher connectivity will have higher quantum volume given otherwise similar performance parameters. From numerical simulations for a given connectivity, IBM found that there are two possible paths for increasing the quantum volume. Although all operations must improve to increase the quantum volume, the first path is to prioritize improving the gate fidelity above other operations, such as measurement and initialization. This sets the roadmap for device performance to focus on the errors that limit gate performance, such as coherence and calibration errors. The second path stems from the observation that, for these devices and this metric, circuit optimization is becoming important. They implemented various circuit optimization passes (far from optimal) and showed a measurable change in the experimental performance. IBM introduced an approximate method for NISQ devices, and used it to show experimental improvements. IBM has determined that their quantum devices are close to being fundamentally limited by coherence times, which for IBM Q System One averages 73 microseconds.
SOURCES- IBM Research, Arxiv Validating quantum computers using randomized model circuits Written By Brian Wang

59 thoughts on “Measuring Quantum Computer Power With IBM Quantum Volume Metric”

  1. No, it wasn’t.

    25th Amendment removal of a POTUS is to be handled by Cabinet officers and the Vice President.

    McCabe was neither of those things.

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  2. I can’t believe how much people will disregard the Trump campaigns colluding relationship with Russia(Trump Tower).

    Because it didn’t happen. It is all a Nothingburger. Trump did not collude with the Russians. Mueller’s report will reflect this.

    What did happen was the DNC and Clinton’s colluding with Russians.

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  3. The third, and most useful clue as to what is going on is that the comment system on this site, despite going through several different suppliers, has never been without serious glitches and problems.

    This year’s amusing glitch is that the comment threads can randomly jump from one article to another.

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  4. That only works if you have well educated people distributed across all the states. In reality, that does not happen and will never happen. What is the result? A bunch of states that are a giant cluster because a majority of the electorate are a bunch of schizoid azz clowns who spends their days feverishly jacking off to their own delusions.

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  5. “when they’re tide to that post with a blindfold”

    So is an ocean tide or Tide pod holding him to the post? Oh and making threats on a post about a hot civil war is decidedly ironic.

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  6. “Yes, conservatives might have more weapons, but you still can only fire one at a time. One shot, one kill”

    I believe that you fire exactly zero of the weapons you don’t have.

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  7. “In this model since the states would be the dominate factor instead of the feds, who would unify regulations that all states would have to abide by since most states are just separated by imaginary lines? “

    We already have cross-state-border agreements for power grids, water sharing, police, emergency response, etc. The notion that things will fall apart without The Fed dictating everything is nonsense.

    More likely than not you would have three broad categories for regulations among the states: Red, Blue, Purple.

    For pollution you can keep the EPA if you can get rid of the insanity (e.g. declaring every fish pond a waterway).

    Also the situation you fear is the status quo for state law, state bar exams, state certifications, etc and things are working just fine.

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  8. You should write a book of all of your imaginary conquests, and there outcomes. Traitors like you always talk a big game in the beginning, then when they’re tide to that post with a blindfold, they finally see the errors in their ways. Then it’s too late…

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  9. Like the POTUS we currently have in office? What makes you think you know anything about sieges, and war. Get off your computer boy, and get out into the real world.

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  10. First, I’m not AOC, but I do respect what’s she’s trying to do. She is at least putting in an effort to help make at least this country a better place for everyone, even if she does miss the mark. What have you done for this country, and your countrymen and women? Me, well I served my country in OIF 3. I didn’t agree with why we were in Iraq but I served nonetheless. I know what a war is, and what tragedies it brings. I bet you have no idea what it means to serve, and sacrifice. You’re about as low as whale shit, and that’s at the bottom of the ocean son.

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  11. Quite right Erick, not a Coup.
    But even if it was… A coup against a Treasonous President?

    I can’t believe how much people will disregard the Trump campaigns colluding relationship with Russia(Trump Tower). Trump ally Roger Stone’s direct contact with Wikileaks and the Trump/Putin meeting with no one else in the room except the translator who has been purposely muted by Trump.

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  12. “If there was armed conflict, the Republicans have about three times the number of firearms as the Democrats.”
    Not to mention twice the brains–if they’d just use them.

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  13. Yeah but the people who fly those drones have civilian friends and civilian families. The Oathkeeper movement is very strong in the U.S. military and LE.

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  14. I don’t disagree with you regarding certain stats misrepresenting the true state of the economy (e.g. labor participation skews unemployment lower) but it’s often very hard to capture local area dynamics with national level statistics. The company I work for does a lot of business in Florida, Georgia, Tennessee, Texas, Colorado, and Utah. In all of those states I would say that headline unemployment actually vastly understates how tight the labor markets are (e.g. actual unemployment is much lower than what is stated). All I’ve heard all day every day is how hard it is to find employees and that’s my own experience as well.

    Conversely we exited Illinois a few years ago and headline unemployment definitely overstated the health of the labor market.

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  15. …and another one word: sieges

    Modern day cities…certainly not any in the US…are set up to endure ANY form of siege. And where does the Left so stupidly self-sort their population? Into cities.

    Also, what makes you think that ALL of the military would blindly follow orders from a POTUS out of control?

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  16. “…and that cause is a society facing collapse.”

    Nope. Societies facing collapses usually endure revolutions, not civil wars.

    Like what happened behind the Iron Curtain when communism fell.

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  17. Nothing you say addresses the cause of civil wars nor the specific ones that will cause the one we likely face. Sorry, but that is true.

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  18. This is so dumb. I am 73 years old and one of the first things we learned in school about what make our democracy great is that we have more than one political party (Mainly 2). All we have to do as Americans is get back to that belief and take pride in it.
    As far as a civil war we as Americans, live better than 93% of the rest of the world. Why screw that up for our children and other loved ones??

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  19. A civil war is the wet dream of a lot of these ignorant and barely educated idiots. It’ll never happen. Thankfully the children of these Neanderthals see things differently, and won’t be passing on their parents bad behavior.

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  20. You see “civil war” as the problem. It is an effect of a cause, and that cause is a society facing collapse.

    The US propaganda machine has its hooks in its population more than any ruling class has had control of the working class in human history. But all this means is that the society will be further along its own collapse before the working class eats the ruling class. Historically, at best the ruling class will simply be the last to starve.

    I don’t think the author of this article realizes how bad it is in the US. The unemployment figures do not count underemployment nor do they count unemployment lasting longer than 3 months. GDP growth rates reflecting a transfer of wealth from the working class to the ruling class are still labelled “good” by the ruling class and its propaganda apparatus as the country “recovers” itself into poverty when not in an actual recession, which occur on average every 7 years. This is all academic; no actual expert disagrees that the metrics used by the ruling class are not only wrong but an exercise in self-delusion.

    Much of the US, especially red states, was already suffering from every single problem a society can have that causes collapse, and then along came global warming. The final problem that determines collapse is political conservatism – which makes it impossible for a society to change to fix its problems – and the US is possibly the most rigid, inflexible country in the world.

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  21. There is no Civil War brewing, cold or otherwise.

    You live in an alternate universe. The war happens in our court rooms and in the House right now, as I type. One side holds zero respect for the electoral decision of the rest of the country. For pete’s sake McCabe just admitted that a group of people in the government tried to overthrow Trump in a coup. Where have you been?

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  22. Also, I think the Smollett case is pretty telling. Actor wanted a raise so he staged a hate crime. Heck, he had to hire (and trick) two black actors to help him stage the crime. I’m not saying that racism doesn’t exist or that hate crimes don’t happen but a lot of the high profile ones recently have turned out to be hoaxes. Andy Ngo has done a pretty good job of documenting these over on Twitter: https://twitter.com/MrAndyNgo/status/1097020092791934976

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  23. I’m white and I’ve worked with a lot of black people over the years. I don’t see the “radical hate” in the black community you speak of. Sorry, I just don’t see it. I’ve never encountered it. Does racism exist? Sure. Is it as widespread as fifty years ago? Heck no. Will it ever go away? Probably not.

    Go poll 1,000 black people across the U.S. and I bet 75% of them give you the exact same answers I just gave you. One of the progressive think tanks… I can’t remember which one at the moment… polled black Americans with two questions along the lines of “is racism widespread” and “is racism the result of government policies and actions or natural personal views?” They’ve asked these same questions for something like the last 30 years. As time has gone on, fewer respondents said that racism was widespread and fewer respondents said that it was the result of government policies or actions. Of interest, the over 65 group basically assigned all racism to “natural personal views” which is basically like acknowledging that this is a “people problem” and not a “government problem”.

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  24. The system is dead locked but there will not be a civil war as long as democracy prevails and not circumvented.

    That is not how civil wars come about. They start in hot mode when the standards of constitutional restraint fall apart. That is where we are headed.

    We need to move to an European style parliamentary system that allows for more voices to be heard at a price of a less stable government.

    That won’t solve anything. Just ask a former Yugoslavian.

    The constitution is anachronistic …or used as a starting document for a modern government,

    BS.

    as it emphasizes meaningless rights like owning arms instead of handling of a modern country

    And THAT attitude kiddies is proof right there that we are indeed headed to Civil War 2.0. When one side does not respect the right of the other to hold different values but instead expects them to submit to their’s, there can be no compromise and we are pretty much guaranteed to have conflict.

    Not to mention open contempt for the existing Constitutional structure.

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  25. I could see a Dem president using the military to place red states under martial law and to hunt down the right wing militias that would form (many from red state nat guard units).

    In response, those militias will hit the electrical, water and food supply lines into cities. Cities where 90% of the Left’s population is stupidly concentrated in.

    A modern city only has enough food on the shelves to last a week. Less when the panic hoarding starts.

    So when the kale and lattes run out, the left will have not option but to surrender. The snowflakes won’t ever make it to the Leningrad canabilism stage.

    It will be short, yes. Unless the military is split (which it very well might be). In that case we will see full on tank battles of Army units against each other, too.

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  26. The one thing the U.S. Constitution does remarkably well is that it protects the minority from the tyranny of the majority which short-circuits many populist policies with the only caveat being SCOTUS ruling that corporations are people (horribly misguided IMO). Honestly, the last thing I would want to do is follow Europe down any political road.

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  27. The system is dead locked but there will not be a civil war as long as democracy prevails and not circumvented. We need to move to an European style parliamentary system that allows for more voices to be heard at a price of a less stable government. The constitution is anachronistic and very difficult to be changed or used as a starting document for a modern government, as it emphasizes meaningless rights like owning arms instead of handling of a modern country.

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  28. In this model since the states would be the dominate factor instead of the feds, who would unify regulations that all states would have to abide by since most states are just separated by imaginary lines?

    Uhhh…we don’t. Not unless there is widespread agreement on what those ‘regulations’ are. See Switzerland’s model. They take their system to that extreme level. Works just fine.

    Also, would this model provide support for a sort of unified council maybe similar to a parliament instead of having a president?

    Why is that an issue? Federalism is an arrangement between the States and their central government, not about how that central government is ran.

    The Swiss have an executive council and a parliament. But most decisions happen at the individual canton level.

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  29. History teaches us that when the inequality between the top and the bottom gets too much, there is unrest. But, does that hold true when even the people at the bottom get enought to eat and can sit home and play video games instead?

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  30. We need to create a belief in better options.

    All sides currently believe they can get results in the existing system.

    So what does “better options” mean, exactly, if not belief in policy-based solutions? Is the private sector supposed to step up and just spontaneously invent whole new service industries and voluntarily retrain everybody on their dime? Yeah, good luck with that.

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  31. I travel across the U.S. a tremendous amount for work. In the last ten years I’ve visited 42 states and often I’m in second-tier cities and medium-sized towns. I interact with a lot of businesses both big and small and a whole spectrum of people. IMO, most of the U.S. population is very centrist in their views and what makes it into mainstream media are the extremes because that’s what sells. As time has gone on my every-day real world interactions haven’t really changed but mainstream media would have me believe that the U.S. is becoming more fragmented and more hostile. I’m not seeing it on the ground. Yes, yes, anecdote isn’t data but my sample really is quite large and diverse.

    Funny thing: the DOD funded a research grant circa ~2006 to use “Big Data” to predict civil wars. The group that got the grant figured out the best predictors of a civil war (in order) were average age, unemployment, and a few others I don’t recall. Anyhow, those factors basically spot-on predicted the “Arab Spring”. The U.S. is simply too old and wealthy for there to be a civil war.

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  32. Sortocracy: Sorting proponents of social theories into governments that test them averts Civil War II. This goes beyond mere restoration of the original intent of the Constitution to a clarification of the foundation of civil society in rules so simple that the “argument surface” is minimized:

    1. Sortocracy recognizes all States have legitimate power to control the presence of individuals on their respective territories. This includes exclusion or exile of anyone for any reason whatsoever.
    2. Sortocracy requires that all States provide relocation for anyone, and their dependents, requesting emigration or being exiled. This does _not_ necessarily include relocation of capital assets claimed as “property” by those relocating. “Property rights” are defined by States themselves, not by Sortocracy. Their dependents include any children that have not been given up for adoption.
    3. Sortocracy grants States territorial value in proportion to a census of their members. Sortocracy issues cash flow to States for territorial rent. This money is backed by territorial value. States then competitively bid to rent territory from Sortocracy.
    4. New individuals qualify for admission to Sortocracy under one of 2 conditions: 1) Inheritance: For example, an ancestor of a child may will his membership to a descendant. 2) Territorial acquisition: A State admitting an individual as a new member of Sortocracy must add territory to Sortocracy equal in value a member’s territorial rent.
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  33. I am told that, from the viewpoints of a lot of the people in other countries, the Republicans and the Democrats aren’t terribly different, and both would be considered relatively conservative.

    Eliminate gerrymandering, allow only individual humans to make campaign contributions (regardless of the Supreme Court choosing to rule that the legal fiction of corporations could be extended to giving them free speech, thus allowing them to make campaign contributions), and put term limits on Congress. That pretty much defuses most of it as members of Congress could no longer be so assured of reelection that they could afford to avoid compromise (in fact, they are currently penalized for it) and effectively cease to see themselves as representing the people, rather than their parties.

    Of course, it would take a Constitutional Convention and Congress, both parties, will move Heaven and Hell to prevent one from being called. That might be where things really get hot. Eventually something would have to give.

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  34. Yes, conservatives might have more weapons, but you still can only fire one at a time. One shot, one kill. That goes for all sides.

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  35. In this model since the states would be the dominate factor instead of the feds, who would unify regulations that all states would have to abide by since most states are just separated by imaginary lines? Also, would this model provide support for a sort of unified council maybe similar to a parliament instead of having a president?

    In my opinion I prefer a system that supports direct democracy where the voters have the power, and everyone votes electronically.

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  36. Some people need to get out of their parents’ basements and actually travel around the USA. Stop reading the alarmist conspiracy theory “news” sites and actually talk to real people around the country.

    There is no Civil War brewing, cold or otherwise.

    EDIT: ESPECIALLY if your only “news” source is social media.

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  37. unemployment is still very low. Most people still are able to transition to other jobs.

    This is a bullshit statement. A “job” in 2019 is any small gig making next to nothing. Lets count unemployment like they did in 1980 and see the real face of joblessness.

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  38. Wow, that was a lot a racist garbage you just spewed.
    Black people don’t hate white people or working.
    Stop watching FAUX NEWS.

    The left is not radical, in fact it has not changed much.
    The right has moved so far to the right it appears to you that the left is moving farther away.
    Reagan himself could never be in today’s Republican party.
    He would be considered too Liberal.

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  39. You dont know what you are talking about really, thats not how pyramids work, you would need and inverted pyramid as an example, the poor at the bottom tip have the lowest wealth while the few rich at the top have all the wealth, the pyrammid being the wealth not the people, the people would be represented by a normal pyramid while wealth by an inverted one.
    Regardless the issue of america is not that, its corruption, because big corporation arent held accountable or pay their taxes through loop holes and lobbying and paying politicians.
    What makes you think for a second that socialism solves corruption and poverty? it doesnt, corruption is even worse under socialism and you also die of hunger with 0 opportunities while under illusion that everyone is equal while the elites that name themselves into authoritarian power get all the wealth instead of the corporations.
    You’re just shifting the problem while making everything worse.
    You need to keep current system while fighting corruption and tax evasion.

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  40. America looks to head to civil war, its almost unavoidable.
    The left doesnt want to give up radical socialism.
    While Trump and republicans are hated they are centre-right wing slightly mostly conservatives.
    While radical socialists are heading towards full blown communism/socialism and they have radicalised a lot of young people through schools and social media + tv media.

    Also black people will never settle in USA they hate white people to the max and dont want to work most of them. The radical hate against white people and especially white men wont go on for ever.

    It doesnt look at this point anyone can unradicalize the left, and as long as they exist the right will become resistance aswell potentially radicalizing on the way.

    It reminds me of the exact scenario of Hitler and fascists, Germany was under heavy economic burden, enemies all around, and communists almost taking over threw people into massive support for radical right under which atrocities and terrible crimes/wars were committed. Also because WW2 went the way it went half of east europe was overtaken by garbage communists including my country (Romania) which still suffers to this day because of communists garbage.

    It somehow seems to me there is no way to completely abolish and block marxism/socialism/intersectionality like everyone blocks fascism and alike. I guess its because fascism/nazi’s were all about aryan race and their unjustified hate towards anyone else is what made them so obviously bad.

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  41. Capitalism is like a pyramid. and when the Top gets to heavy the bottom crumbles. Im not against capitalism but something or someone’s gotta give.

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  42. We need to create a belief in better options.

    THERE is a better option. Staring at us in the face: A Return to Federalism

    Not ‘federalism’ as the Left and some of the Extreme Right think of it: Centralizing more power in the federal government.

    I speak of federalism as the nation is supposed to have. This would mean devolving lots of what goes on in DC back to the states — who can then choose to administrate those new programs individually or collectively via interstate compacts or even not at all. This would mean actually enforcing the Enumeration Clause and 9th and 10th Amendments in the courts.

    Social Security and Medicare? They become interstate compacts. This should be done anyway to prevent Congress from raiding its funds. HUD, same thing, HHS ditto. Same with Depts of Education, Commerce and Energy. The list goes on, I am sure.

    Of course, the Left hates this idea…unless they are not in power in DC. Then they hypocritically rave on the idea of federalism. Many RINOs in the GOP hate this idea as well, for the same reasons.

    Most civil wars btw are not wars of secession like the US War Between The States was in the 19th century. They are about one side gaining control of the central government instead. Civil War 2.0 is about the latter, more common version this time. THIS is why reintroducing true federalism in the US is the only way to avoid Civil War 2.0 from becoming hot.

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  43. The groups are

    Trump and his supporters

    Traditional Republicans

    Traditional Democrats

    Socialist-wing of Democrats

    That is a rather one dimensional view of things. It is also likely that ethnic/race wars will happen, a la Rwanda and Yugoslavia.

    Another is Constitutionalists (Traditional Reps and Dems, most Trump supporters) and those who want to tear it down (Socialist Democrats) because it gets in their way — see R. Kimhi’s comment here as proof of that: https://www.spot.im/s/00gl6ehMEOSr

    And of course, these groups are in the other groups you already mentioned, too.

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  44. The closest I think we’ll get to a hot civil war is short lived riots in democrat controlled cities. Identity politics has fractured the left and the socialism push is making it pretty much everyone against progressive authoritarianism.

    It would be the the giant corporate controlled cities against everyone else. I don’t see how you get decisive lines of division.

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  45. If there was armed conflict, the Republicans have about three times the number of firearms as the Democrats.

    Here it is in graphical terms:

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