Free live webcast at: http://www.techzulu.com/live.html
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The first speaker is Larry Millstein who is speaking on Sequencing Single DNA molecules.
Larry is going through an initial tutorial on DNA, DNA replication and DNA sequencing.
* a couple of slides on the massive progress and fast rate of progress in lowering the cost of Genome sequencing and sequencing 1 million base pairs
* a series slides on the steps for DNA sequencing
* long reads versus short reads (7X coverage for long reads and 20X coverage for short reads, but future advance will likely erase this difference)
Illumina is a leader and their latest machine costs $650,000 and generates 25 billion base pair sequences per day (8X coverage of the human genome, so one good read of a full genome per day)
10 terabases per year, 200 HGE (human genome equivalents) per machine
Beijing Genomics Institute bought 200 machines and now has a capacity of 2 petabases per year.
takes 8 days to do a run
The theoretical limit of real time single molecule sequencing.
Work is done in zero waveguides. (ZMW)
The ZWV are about 50 nanometers around and can hold 600,000 molecules. (20 X 10^-21 liters)
Put DNA into the ZMW covalently.
The DNA bonds briefly to the bottom connection point where the flourescent attached can put a single that can be read. About 100 reads per second. The DNA that is flying free has flourescents too but are moving around too fast to give a signal.
No commercial model yet
expected sub-$1000 genome sequencing
sub 1 HGE in 4 hours
Maybe much better
Real time single molecule sequencing.
No fabrication of ZMW wells
Forster Energy Transfer
commercial device for 2011
4 hour for HGE
Cracker (Taiwan company)
Beyond Real Time Single Model Sequecing
figure out which base pair is passing through a pore in a membrane
use an electron microscope
use STEM and AFM
Applications of NexGen Sequencing
Whole genome sequencing – human variation, disease risk
Genome scanning – cancer SNPs
Populations wide genomic sequecing -HIV variants
Ancient DNA sequencing – Neanderthal etc…
Figure out the big genomics and biological picture for whole planet/biosphere
DNA Polymerase has one in a million error rate. Need to error check.
Is an ensemble sometimes better than one ?
Can single molecule SBS be used as the read out for computational devices based on DNA ?
Can single molecule SBS be used as the basis for programmable molecular assemblers ?