3D printed human corneas could provide unlimited supply for transplants

3D printed corneas could be used in the future to ensure an unlimited supply of corneas.

They have a unique gel – a combination of alginate and collagen – which keeps the stem cells alive whilst producing a material which is stiff enough to hold its shape but soft enough to be squeezed out the nozzle of a 3D printer.

Experimental Eye Research – 3D bioprinting of a corneal stroma equivalent

As the outermost layer of the human eye, the cornea has an important role in focusing vision.

Yet there is a significant shortage of corneas available to transplant, with 10 million people worldwide requiring surgery to prevent corneal blindness as a result of diseases such as trachoma, an infectious eye disorder.

In addition, almost 5 million people suffer total blindness due to corneal scarring caused by burns, lacerations, abrasion or disease.

The proof-of-concept research, published today in Experimental Eye Research, reports how stem cells (human corneal stromal cells) from a healthy donor cornea were mixed together with alginate and collagen to create a solution that could be printed, a ‘bio-ink’.

Using a simple low-cost 3D bio-printer, the bio-ink was successfully extruded in concentric circles to form the shape of a human cornea. It took less than 10 minutes to print.

“This builds upon our previous work in which we kept cells alive for weeks at room temperature within a similar hydrogel. Now we have a ready to use bio-ink containing stem cells allowing users to start printing tissues without having to worry about growing the cells separately.”

The scientists, including first author Ms Abigail Isaacson from the Institute of Genetic Medicine, Newcastle University, also demonstrated that they could build a cornea to match a patient’s unique specifications.

The dimensions of the printed tissue were originally taken from an actual cornea. By scanning a patient’s eye, they could use the data to rapidly print a cornea which matched the size and shape.

Professor Connon added: “Our 3D printed corneas will now have to undergo further testing and it will be several years before we could be in the position where we are using them for transplants.

“However, what we have shown is that it is feasible to print corneas using coordinates taken from a patient eye and that this approach has potential to combat the world-wide shortage.”

Significant progress
Dr Neil Ebenezer, director of research, policy and innovation at Fight for Sight, said: “We are delighted at the success of researchers at Newcastle University in developing 3D printing of corneas using human tissue.

“This research highlights the significant progress that has been made in this area and this study is important in bringing us one step closer to reducing the need for donor corneas, which would positively impact some patients living with sight loss.

“However, it is important to note that this is still years away from potentially being available to patients and it is still vitally important that people continue to donate corneal tissue for transplant as there is a shortage within the UK.

“A corneal transplant can give someone back the gift of sight.”

Abstract
Corneal transplantation constitutes one of the leading treatments for severe cases of loss of corneal function. Due to its limitations, a concerted effort has been made by tissue engineers to produce functional, synthetic corneal prostheses as an alternative recourse. However, successful translation of these therapies into the clinic has not yet been accomplished. 3D bioprinting is an emerging technology that can be harnessed for the fabrication of biological tissue for clinical applications. We applied this to the area of corneal tissue engineering in order to fabricate corneal structures that resembled the structure of the native human corneal stroma using an existing 3D digital human corneal model and a suitable support structure. These were 3D bioprinted from an in-house collagen-based bio-ink containing encapsulated corneal keratocytes. Keratocytes exhibited high cell viability both at day 1 post-printing (over 90%) and at day 7 (83%). We established 3D bio-printing to be a feasible method by which artificial corneal structures can be engineered.

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Interview with Erik Gatenholm head of Cellink 3d Bioprinting

CellInk focuses on the development and commercialization of bioprinting technologies that allow researchers to 3D print human organs and tissues for the development of pharmaceutical and cosmetic products, and in the future, for clinical applications. CELLINK’s innovative and patent pending bioink is a biomaterial innovation that enables human cells to grow and thrive such as they would in the natural human body environment. Today, the company’s disruptive technology platform is being utilized to print tissues such as liver, cartilage, skin, and even fully functional cancer tumors that can then be used to develop new cancer treatments. The company has, within 12 months, been able to commercialize products in more than 40 countries and sold to more than hundreds of prestigious labs around the world, such as Harvard, MIT, Princeton, and FDA. Follow us on our journey to change the world of medicine.

Cellink has 26 different types of inks for tissue-specific usage. They had one of the fastest IPOs and they have rapidly become profitable supply bioinks for pharma testing applications. Replacing rabbits and skin patches for product and drug testing.

By Brian Wang of Nextbigfuture
Sources- Newcastle University, Youtube, Experimental Eye Research journal

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