DARPA has a project to reuse satellite antennas, apertures, and other components from decommissioned satellites. They seek to use still-good components from dead satellites parked in high-Earth orbit for building new satellites robotically while in orbit to reduce the costs of replacing failed satellites.
Phoenix seeks to demonstrate around-the-clock, globally persistent communication capability for warfighters more economically by robotically removing and re-using GEO-based space apertures and antennas from de-commissioned satellites in the graveyard or disposal orbit.
DARPA is asking NovaWurks to develop an integrated proximity awareness system (IPAS), rendezvous and proximity operations (RPO) technology suite, synergistic number of degrees of freedom (N-DOF) test facility support, virtual ground station operations, and payload orbital delivery system (PODS)-hosted launch.
The Phoenix program envisions developing a new class of very small ‘satlets,’ similar to nano satellites, which could be sent to the GEO region more economically as a “ride along” on a commercial satellite launch, and then attached to the antenna of a non-functional cooperating satellite robotically, essentially creating a new space system. A payload orbital delivery system, or PODS, will also be designed to safely house the satlets for transport aboard a commercial satellite launch. A separate on-orbit ‘tender,’ or satellite servicing satellite is also expected to be built and launched into GEO. Once the tender arrives on orbit, the PODS would then be released from its ride-along host and link up with the tender to become part of the satellite servicing station’s ‘tool belt.’ The tender plans to be equipped with grasping mechanical arms for removing the satlets and components from the PODS using unique space tools to be developed in the program.
Communication satellites in geosynchronous orbit (GEO), approximately 22,000 miles above the earth, provide vital communication capabilities to warfighters. Today, when a communication satellite fails, it usually means the expensive prospect of having to launch a brand new replacement communication satellite. Many of the satellites which are obsolete or have failed still have usable antennas, solar arrays and other components which are expected to last much longer than the life of the satellite, but currently there is no way to re-use them.
Critical to the success of the Phoenix program is active participation from the international and non-traditional space communities involved in vital technical areas such as:
* Radiation tolerant micro-electronics and memory storage
* Distributed “wireless” mobile platform solutions for ad-hoc connectivity and control Industrial electronic control systems
* Terrestrial micro-miniature guidance and control measurement units
* Industrial robotics end effectors and tool changeout mechanisms and techniques
* Computer-assisted medical robotics micro-surgical tele-presence, tools and imaging
* Remote underwater imaging/vision technologies used in the offshore oil and gas drilling industry
* Terrestrial manufacturing of high volume micro-electronics and computer data storage
* Terrestrial thermal management design technology of electronic devices and systems
* Low-cost industrial manufacturing of high volume sheet metal and other structural materials
* Additive manufacturing on various structural materials
The first keystone mission of the Phoenix program in 2015 plans to demonstrate harvesting an existing, cooperative, retired satellite aperture, by physically separating it from the host non-working satellite using on-orbit grappling tools controlled remotely from earth. The aperture will then be reconfigured into a ‘new’ free-flying space system and operated independently to demonstrate the concept of space “re-use.”